The text will be endlessly corrected, in an attempt to create a readable text for the Scientific Community.
- The very kind Professor Giorgio Saba has found the real Pillars of Hercules : they are the Faraglione Antiche Columns of Carloforte, on the Island of San Pietro, in Sardinia (Italy); his discovery is described in the text “ Excuse me, where is Hades? Hypotheses on the ancient history of Sardinia ”.
- Sulcis is the capital of Atlantis;
- Atlantis is not Sardinia: Atlantis is the Sardinian-Corsican geological block partially submerged due to causes to be ascertained; Sardinia is just a plateau of emerged land on the semi-submerged island of Atlantis. When the island was semi-submerged, what remained out of the water was then known as Sardinia and Corsica. Corsica was the mountainous part north of Atlantis.
- There is evidence of a submersion, which occurred on a date to be determined;
- There are white, red and black rocks: the black ones have even been exported throughout the Mediterranean Sea, and this is obsidian; the red rocks are very famous in Sardinia, in particular those of Arbatax and the red rocks of Carloforte, to name just a few. The Red Rocks of Ogliastra are one of the main naturalistic attractions of the region. Located on the central-eastern coast of Sardinia, these imposing red porphyry formations emerge from the emerald green waters, creating a spectacular color contrast with the white rocks and colored pebbles 1 .The Rocce Rosse bay opens to the east of the port of Arbatax, a tourist hamlet of Tortolì, with a bottom of white rocks and high red granite rocks that give the landscape a unique and extremely fascinating aspect 1 . The reflection of the rocks gives the water an iridescent emerald green color, creating a magical and breathtaking atmosphere, especially at sunset when the warm tones enhance the beauty of the landscape 1 . The Red Rocks were also the location for the final scene of the film “Swept Away by an Unusual Destiny” by Lina Wertmüller (1974) 1 . Other red porphyry cliffs dot the Ogliastra coast, such as Is Scoglius Arrubius, two twenty meter high stacks which are the symbol of the magnificent Cea beach, located a few kilometers to the south 1 . In summary, the Rocce Rosse dell’Ogliastra are a natural wonder that offers a breathtaking spectacle thanks to the chromatic contrast between the red rocks and the emerald green waters. A place not to be missed for anyone visiting Sardinia!
Fetovaia, Neolithic port of the Sardinians in 3720 BC According to an article written by Angelo Mazzei, Fetovaia was a Neolithic port of the Sardinians in 3720 BC The “Circoli Arzachena” of Piane alla Sughera, on the Fetovaia mountain, are Neolithic circle tombs very similar to those of the Circoli di li Muri, in Sardinia. They are empirically dated to around the first half of the 4th millennium BC. According to Mazzei, they can be dated with greater precision to around 3750 BC, given the particularly intense situation in that era in the maritime routes of the Sardinian obsidian traders. Mazzei takes inspired by the discovery of a Neolithic site in Provence containing a deposit of approximately 5000 obsidian fragments from Monte Arci (Oristano). In 2005, a revolutionary discovery occurred near Trets, in the south of France, which has significantly expanded our understanding of the spread of obsidian in the northwestern Mediterranean region. This archaeological site, called “Terres Longues”, is located in the lower limestone Provence, in the Trets basin, and presents traces of dense prehistoric activity. Thanks to several archaeological investigations, it has been revealed that obsidian, a volcanic stone often used in prehistory, it was absent in excavated structures but was present in a specific soil level of the site. This soil layer also showed a large amount of flint (silex bédoulien), another type of stone used by the ancient inhabitants. Dating based on faunal remains found at the base of this ground level revealed that the site dates to the very end of the Chasséen period, placing it around 3720 ± 80 BC. The number of obsidian finds is impressive, amounting to 4548 pieces, making the Terres Longues site unique in southern France and beyond. Obsidian represents more than 20% of the entire assemblage, a remarkably high percentage compared to previously known data. The technological analysis of this lithic assemblage has the objective of defining the function of the site, in particular its role in the circuits for the diffusion of obsidian and Bedulian flint (silex bédoulien) and the possible presence of a Sardinian colony that served as a shopping center for sorting goods. Here are some sources that talk about the spread of Sardinian obsidian in Europe and around the world: making the Terres Longues site unique in the South of France and beyond. Obsidian represents more than 20% of the entire assemblage, a remarkably high percentage compared to previously known data. The technological analysis of this lithic assemblage has the objective of defining the function of the site, in particular its role in the circuits for the diffusion of obsidian and Bedulian flint (silex bédoulien) and the possible presence of a Sardinian colony that served as a shopping center for sorting goods. Here are some sources that talk about the spread of Sardinian obsidian in Europe and around the world: making the Terres Longues site unique in the South of France and beyond. Obsidian represents more than 20% of the entire assemblage, a remarkably high percentage compared to previously known data. The technological analysis of this lithic assemblage has the objective of defining the function of the site, in particular its role in the circuits for the diffusion of obsidian and Bedulian flint (silex bédoulien) and the possible presence of a Sardinian colony that served as a shopping center for sorting goods. Here are some sources that talk about the spread of Sardinian obsidian in Europe and around the world:
- “Obsidian Studies in the Prehistoric Central Mediterranean: After 50 Years, What Have We Learned and What Still Needs to Be Done?” di Robert H. Tykot1
- “Mediterranean Islands and Multiple Flows” di Robert H. Tykot2
- “New directions in central Mediterranean obsidian studies” 3
These sources provide detailed information on the diffusion of Sardinian obsidian, in particular that coming from Monte Arci in Sardinia, which traveled for hundreds of kilometers starting from the Early Neolithic 1 . As can be seen from these sources, there were no white, red and black stones in Atlantis, but there was even a huge trade in black stones, i.e. obsidian, throughout Europe, and we have a lot of documented evidence by scientists and archaeologists who have dedicated part of their lives to this study, allowing us now to have certain and documented evidence of the use of black stones by the Sardinian-Corsican Atlantean people.
- Entry created with the help of Artificial Intelligence, to be rewritten and corrected: there is a lot of evidence of the cult of the bull; among many, the toponymic presence of the Isola del Toro, the Isola della Vacca; the cult of the bull at the temple of Matzanni; the discovery of many ritual bull heads. I will slowly compile all this evidence into this list item.
There is evidence of bull worship in Sardinia. One of the most important is the presence of bucrania, or bovine protomes, representing the bull’s horns, on many archaeological sites on the island. This symbol is one of the most prolific and long-lasting on the island, continuing through the Chalcolithic until the Bronze Age when the bull’s horns are depicted in relief on Nuragic tombs 1. The representation of bulls as sacred animals is extremely ancient and deeply rooted in the collective unconscious. In 15,000 BC, aurochs (the ancestor of our contemporary bulls) were painted in relief in the caves of Lascaux, presented in the famous Hall of the Bulls 1 . The cult of the bull spread throughout the Mediterranean during the late Chalcolithic, presumably transmitted via sailors on trade routes 1 .
The bull was the most present, not to say exclusive, animal in the Neolithic art and religion of Sardinia. In a stone amulet found in Bau Porcus, the importance and thaumaturgical value of the bull symbol is evident which is engraved with the oval-shaped head surmounted by lunate horns, as well as in the bovine protomes sculpted in the hypogeum of Sa Londra in Alghero, both ascribed to the Ozieri culture. A limestone tetrapod plate with taurine protomes comes from the locality of Bingia Eccia, near Dolianova. In the caves of Monte Majore and Sa Ucca ‘e su Tintirriolu, four fragments of vases dating back to the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC were found in which the pattern of the bull in the shape of a crescent, or with the trapezoidal head enlarged at the nostrils, or again, with the taurine protome, the latter consistently present in Anghelu Ruju, in the Cagliari area, painted on the architraves of the tombs. But the bull protomes are found, sculpted or painted, isolated or in pairs, in numerous domus de janas (tombs excavated in the rock usually reunited in necropolis) scattered throughout the Sardinian territory, as a magical and protective symbolism of burials. Not to mention the bronze statues of Sardinian warriors with helmets adorned with horns, sometimes placed vertically, other times horizontally. It seems strange that an animal like the bull, so useful in the daily reality of agricultural civilization and at the same time so sacred as to constitute almost a union between the animal and divine nature, was depicted only with the signs of the head and horns rather than with the entire body. After the very long period of human history dedicated exclusively to hunting and gathering, we must look back to the rise of pastoral and agricultural civilizations to better understand the meaning of these symbols. In fact, it was the moon that attracted the attention of prehistoric men with its cycles. Our satellite was considered the “personification” of Mother Earth in the sky due to its clear influence on the growth of plants and the outcome of the crops. The waxing and waning phases of its “quarters” brought to mind the ancient populations’ periods of fertility and pregnancy of women. In this sense the Bull-Moon God embodied male fertility also linked to agricultural fertility. The bull has an important symbolic meaning both in the culture of ancient Egypt and that of ancient Sardinia.
- In Egypt , the Apis bull was revered as a deity, especially in Memphis. His cult has been documented since the 2nd Dynasty, and some think it may even date back to the 1st Dynasty. The figure of the bull may have been transmitted to the Egyptians in prehistoric times, a theory that requires further study.
- In the Ozieri culture in Sardinia , the bull or ox was symbolically linked to male fertility and agrarian fertility. This belief was central to the Copper and Bronze Age civilizations. Taurus symbolism was connected with maternal (and lunar) and paternal (and solar) symbolism.
- The Bull God in Sardinia : Giovanni Lilliu describes the cult of the bull in Sardinia, noting the importance of the ox as a partner of the Mother Goddess and protector of the living and the dead. Its aniconic manifestations included large pointed vertical stones (menhirs) and bull protomes in underground tombs.
- Possible connection between the two cultures : Although there are intriguing parallels between the bull cult in the two regions, there is no direct evidence of a connection or mutual influence. Bull symbolism was common to many ancient cultures, so the similarities could be coincidental or the result of cultural convergence.
In conclusion, the cult of the bull is a fascinating feature of both Egyptian and Sardinian cultures, and the similarities between the two may be suggestive of universal themes connected to agriculture, fertility and power. Further research could clarify whether there is a direct connection between these religious practices.
- The catastrophe cited by Plato must have been the geological phenomenon of partial submergence of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block , perhaps causedfrom the Slab Roll-Back, from the possible presence of a tectonic fault that passes under the Sulcis and continues, on one side towards Gibraltar and on the other towards Pompeii and Herculaneum, and visible using the satellite and bathymetric map of Google Maps, available free of charge online. Furthermore, the Meltwater Pulses also happened in that historical period. The era in which the Sardinian-Corsican block was called Atlantis was therefore before 9600 BC. The mud caused by marine erosion and currents made it impossible to sail along the island, so probably for a few centuries the island remained unreachable, thus contributing to making people forget the power of this warlike ancient people. Atlantis has a north-south orientation, as stated by Plato. The northern part is full of excellent winds for navigation, and in fact between Corsica and Sardinia there is one of the best sailing schools in Europe. The ephemeral vision was correct: Poseidon was an ancient ruler of the Sardinian-Corsican island when it was still an emerged land, then deified. If all this is correct, it means that in the dispute between catastrophists and evolutionists, in relation to Atlantean issues, the catastrophists were right. At the current moment, however, it was not yet clear which of the two factions could be right.
- Why are there no archaeological or historical traces of such an advanced and powerful civilization in the Corsican Sardinian block? Because the population particularly preyed on marine resources, like the two individuals found at the Su Carroppu rock shelter in Sirri, and to do so they lived on the Atlantean paleocoasts, today called the Sardinian Corsa Continental Shelf. Part of the civilization and population that were located on the paleocoasts were submerged and then swept away by approximately eleven thousand six hundred years of marine currents, which transformed the paleocoasts into a continental platform that now surrounds the Sardinian geological block. Furthermore, we know from experience that as the years pass, sedimentary deposits stratify: for example, the Roman remains from around two thousand years ago are potentially found under a few meters of sediment and debris. Therefore, logically, if a scholar wanted to find the sedimentary layers that contain the remains of the Atlantean civilization, he would have to carry out a stratigraphic study that reaches the stratigraphy of 9600 BC, i.e. the layer of approximately 11,600 years ago. The refuge sottoroccia Su Carroppu returned the DNA of two out of three individuals, of a population with DNA almost entirely different from the DNA of the population that subsequently colonized the island of Sardinia three thousand years later. Therefore, we can temporarily hypothesize that the two individuals analyzed at Su Carroppu di Sirri are from the Atlantean population. From this hypothesis, it can be deduced that the Atlanteans, in addition to preying on marine resources and living in the paleocoasts, they lived in caves or rock shelters. Various very ancient caves are concentrated in Sulcis: the caves of Is Zuddas; the Acquacadda cave; and other caves that I am unable to list at the moment, but which may slowly be added to this list. Therefore, in order to disprove my theory, it would be enough to carry out stratigraphic analyzes in these caves, to demonstrate that they were not inhabited in 9600 BC or before. In fact, Plato states that the Atlantean catastrophe dates back nine thousand years before Solon’s journey to Sais in Egypt, and this journey occurred approximately in 590 BC. From these statements, another very important question can also be answered, reported below. If the Atlantean civilization was as advanced and powerful, as Plato says, it should also have left traces on the mainland, not just on the paleocoasts. And in fact, in my opinion, he left the traces in the caves around the Atlantis plateau which now emerges from the sea and which has been called, by our civilization, with the name of Sardinia. In fact, remains dating back to around 20,000 years ago were found in the Lanaittu cave, and this is perfectly consistent with the Corsican Sardinian Atlantis theory. Atlantis was inhabited even 20,000 years ago. Indeed, at the present time it seems that Sardinia was inhabited since at least 300,000 years ago. This is why Plato states that it was “ancient to the ancients”. And this would also be the reason why the priest of the goddess Neith a Sais told Solon that the Greeks were never old, they were young, and that their mythology was very similar to children’s fairy tales. The priest was trying to explain to Solon that the Greeks had lost the memory of what happened between Sardinian Corsican Atlantis and early Athens, because the survivors were not literate and could not write and pass on the memory of what happened around 9600 BC Everything stated is coherent, as a correct scientific theory must be. Therefore the traces of the Atlanteans, endowed with different DNA already classified by the archaeogenetic studies carried out by the Department of Prehistory of the University of Cagliari together with the University of Florence and Ferrara and published in Scientific Report, must be looked for in the rock shelters throughout Sardinia and Corsica and in the caves scattered across these two islands, which are actually plateaus that emerged out of the sea on the underlying island of Atlantis. Atlantis was one of the names that the Egyptians gave to this island, which in the walls of the temple of Edfu in Egypt is also called Trample Island, War Island, Peace Island, Egg Island etc. By rereading and analyzing the texts of the temple of Edfu in this key, it is possible to obtain new information on Atlantis and its origins, which seem to be rooted in Egyptian mythology.
- Plato describes Atlantis as an island larger than Libya and Asia combined: this is very possible, as at the present moment we do not know what the exact size of Libya and Asia was in 9600 BC. So we could proceed with a reverse reasoning: assuming that Plato reported authentic and truthful Egyptian sources, we can therefore deduce that in 9600 BC Libya and Asia were two geographical areas that covered a geographical area smaller than that covered by the Sardinian geological block -course currently submerged under the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the Libya of 9600 BC may not correspond at all with current Libya or with the concept of “Africa”. Indeed, the discoveries made by Luigi Usai in Birsa Bank, El Haouaria Bank, in the Iblean Sicily-Malta continental carbonate platform, flanked by the Sicily-Malta Escarpment, they show vast territories currently unknown to archeology and official history, so the Scientific Community has yet to clarify what disappeared civilizations we are talking about, whether they are actually submerged buildings and cities; what civilizations they are; because they are submerged; when they were submerged, due to which events. In short, the new discoveries on the Mediterranean seabed open up extremely interesting and innovative scenarios.
- There is numerous evidence of the existence of Atlantis in the Sardinian-Corsican block: Sardinian archaeologists stopped to analyze the stratigraphy up to the Nuragic; at the present moment it would seem that no one has excavated up to the stratigraphic layers of 9600 BC, thus making it impossible to have archaeological evidence, which has therefore never been looked for, as the Sardinian academic world, in its almost total entirety, believed that Atlantis was fruit of Plato’s imagination, as various archaeologists affirm in many videos and texts published online, for example at the Seminar called “Sa Mesa Archeotunda”.
- The evidence of existence of canals is very strong: in fact there is a canal port like the one described for Atlantis, and it is the Canal Port of Cagliari; the geography and even the geology of Sulcis present, upon analysis of satellite images, trends in concentric circles or sections of circles; the geography of the center of Sulcis coincides with the Platonic descriptions: sacred woods (even today a large part of Sulcis is made up of woods and natural parks considered so precious that they have been made protected areas by the European Union, and this may be a reason why no excavations and core sampling studies were carried out to verify the possible presence of underground archaeological finds).
- Atlantis was very rich in minerals: and it still is today, let’s imagine what it must have been like over 11,600 years ago! The Sulcis mines are famous throughout Europe, they have an ancient history and tradition, well known to geologists all over the world and which does not need to be further underlined. In Furtei there is still a gold mine which still allowed gold to be extracted a few decades ago; this suggests that in prehistory the mine could have been very rich in gold raw material. In Sardinia there are even unique minerals in the world, for example Ichnusaite, which takes its name from Ichnussa, the ancient name of Sardinia.
- In Plato’s account of Atlantis, a plain adjacent to the city is described as having a perimeter of 2,000 x 3,000 stadia (385 x 580 km or 240 x 360 miles). One stadium corresponds to approximately 185 metres, so the plain had a perimeter of approximately 370 x 555 km. These are exactly the dimensions of the height and width of the submerged Corsican Sardinian geological block. This implies that in the past the Sardinian Corsican Atlanteans had already managed to measure the exact extension of the island before it ended up submerged under the sea, or if you like, under the Atlantic Ocean, i.e. the current Sea of Corsica and Sardinia. The dimension taken in a north-south direction of the currently semi-submerged Corsican Sardinian block is exactly 555 kilometers, and this precision is impressive, and the fact that the size is so precise cannot be a coincidence: otherwise hundreds and hundreds of “coincidences” are listed on this page. These are not coincidences, but facts.
- Lake Tritonide is the sum of the lakes, lagoons and ponds of Cagliari, Assemini, Elmas, Capoterra, Quartu, Molentargius, Stagno Conti Vecchi; it is yet to be determined whether the submergence of the Sardinian-Corsican block has modified the original dimensions of this lake believed mythological for millennia; I will analyze the sources slowly, trying to make sense of the ancient texts.
Herodotus, Histories 4. 180 (Godley translation) (Greek historian 5th century BC):
I can not say; but I suppose the armor was Egyptian; for I hold that the Greeks got their shield and helmet from Egypt. As for Athena, they say that she was the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonide, and that, for some reason angry with her father, she gave herself to Zeus, who made her his daughter. This is their story. Relationships between men and women are promiscuous; they do not live together but have relationships like cattle. When a woman’s child is well grown, the men gather within three months and the child is judged to be the man he most resembles.” This is their story. Relationships between men and women are promiscuous; they do not live together but have relationships like cattle. When a woman’s child is well grown, the men gather within three months and the child is judged to be the man he most resembles.” This is their story. Relationships between men and women are promiscuous; they do not live together but have relationships like cattle. When a woman’s child is well grown, the men gather within three months and the child is judged to be the man he most resembles.”Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 144 (Aldrich translation) (Greek mythographer 2nd AD):
“They say that after the birth of Athena, she was raised by Triton [and presumably Tritonides], who had a daughter named Pallas. Both girls cultivated military life, which once led them to a contentious dispute. When Pallas was about to strike a blow at Athena, Zeus held out the aegis in a shadowy manner, so that she looked up to protect herself, and so it was wounded by Athena and fell. had happened to Pallas, Athena made a wooden image of her, and around her breast she tied the aegis that had frightened her, and she placed the statue next to Zeus and gave him honor of her.” Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 1493 ff (Rieu translation) (Greek epic 3rd century BC):
“He [Amphithemis son of Apollo and Akakallis (Acacallis)] married the Nymph Tritonis and she bore him two sons, Nasamon and the mighty Kaphauros (Capauro).” Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 14. 6 (Jones translation) (Greek travelogue C2nd AD):
“The Libyans say that the goddess [Athena] is the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonides, and for this reason she has eyes blue like Poseidon.” Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 14 ( Grant translation ) (Roman mythographer 2nd century AD):
“During the return journey [of the Argonauts] Eurybates, son of Teleon died, and Canto, son of . . ((gap)) They were killed in Libya by the shepherd Cephalion, brother of Nasamone, son of the Nymph Tritonide and Amphithemis, whose flocks they plundered.”
- Legend has it that the inhabitants of Lake Tritonide stole and hid a tripod of the Argonauts: I theorized the hypothesis that the tripod mentioned in the legend of the Argonauts was actually hidden by the Sardinians after the arrival of the Argonauts in the area. This tripod may have been a precious or sacred artifact that aroused the interest of the Sardinians, leading them to copy its stylistic technique to produce local tripods. It is therefore possible not only a linguistic and cultural contamination between Greeks and Sardinians, but even an artistic and stylistic one. It is possible that among the fragments of Greek and Cypriot style tripods found by Sardinian archaeologists, there are even some fragments or parts of the tripod mentioned in the legend.
- The Atlas Mountains mentioned by Herodotus in his Histories in Chapter IV are the Sulcis Mountains ;
- Libya mentioned by Herodotus in his Histories in Chapter IV is an area of the current Province of Cagliari;
- It is to be verified that the Cyrene named by Herodotus could be Cyrne:
from Treccani:” cirnènse adj. – Sinon. rare from Corsican (from Corsica), taken from the Greek name of the island Κύρνος (in Lat. Cyrnos or Cyrne ): the Cirnense dialects “.
Is Cyrene Cyrne, i.e. Corsica? If Libya is the current province of Cagliari, is Cyrene Corsica? Is Cyrenaica Corsica? Cyrne – Cyrene?
- The “elephant species” widely present on Corsican Sardinian Atlantis is the Mammuthus Lamarmorae, today also known as the Sardinian dwarf elephant;
- The Atlantic Ocean for Herodotus and Sonchis of Sais is the Sea of Sardinia and Corsica and other Mediterranean seas, but not the whole Mediterranean: only a subset of it; we therefore have the opportunity to make an approximate historical dating:
Solon’s journey to Sais can be dated around 590 BC;
Herodotus of Halicarnassus lived in the 5th century BC.
We can therefore deduce that in the 6th and 5th centuries BC in Egypt and Greece the Sea of Corsica and the Sea of Sardinia were still called the “Atlantic Ocean” by some Mediterranean scholars.
We can therefore infer that something happened later that forced a change in the geographical nomenclature. At the current moment, dated 08/17/2023, I still haven’t understood what happened. Why was the name of the Atlantic Ocean changed, i.e. the Sea of Atlantis? At the moment, I believe that as the power of Rome grew, the old name of the Mediterranean Ocean became unbearable for the Roman Senate: probably the Senate proposed a Damnatio Memoriæ at some point. Currently these statements are still experimental, because I am not a historian, therefore I do not have the cognitive structure necessary to formalize these ideas in a scientific way. I hope that some scholars will help me in this enormous difficulty of mine, putting my ideas to the test, as happens when benchmarking a software product.
- The mud that surrounded the Sardinian-Corsican island of Atlantis is due to erosion by the undertow of the Sardinian-Corsican paleocoasts ; this erosion caused the generation of the so-called submerged Sardinian-Corsican continental shelf;
- Another source I used is the analysis of toponymy . I’m not an expert, I had to build my theory hypothesis after hypothesis. After understanding that Atlantis is the semi-submerged Sardinian-Corsican block, I wondered where the capital could have been. And by observing satellite maps I realized that Sulcis is made up of geological structures that resemble portions of concentric circles, like the capital of Atlantis described by Plato. After having reread the texts of Timaeus and Critias many times, I accidentally realized that in Sulcis, a region of present-day Sardinia, there were some toponyms that recall the Platonic story: many geographical locations of Sulcis in Sardinia (towns/localities/hamlets/towns/cities) contain names linked to the concept of cold water and hot water. However, these names of geographical locations are in Sardinian dialect, so a foreign scientist who does not know the Sardinian language and its constellation of dialect forms could never reach the same conclusions as me . I had the advantage of being born right near Sulcis, so these toponyms are in my first mother tongue, i.e. Campidanese Sardinian or its very similar variants (the linguistic variant of Sulcitan Sardinian). Much of the toponymy of Sulcis recalls the story of Atlantis : Acqua Callentis (hot water); Cold water(cold water); Acquacadda (hot water); S’Acqua Callenti de Susu (the hot water upstairs); S’Acqua Callenti de Basciu (the hot water below); the Acquafredda Castle (cold water castle) which stands on a mountain overlooking the place where the town of Acquafredda (cold water) , now disappeared, was present during the Middle Ages; Furriadroxiu (the place where everything turns upside down); Spistiddatroxiu (the place where one gets hurt); Piscinas (the swimming pools)… and who knows how many others. I then became aware that Sardinian toponymy had points in common with Greek and Egyptian ones : for example,Heliopolis means “city of the Sun”, while in Sulcis there is a place called Terresoli , which in the Sardinian language means “Land of the Sun”; Since I am not a specialist, reconstructing all this information is incredibly difficult and tiring work. I also noticed that the Egyptian priest known as Sonchis , who according to tradition told Solon the story of Atlantis against Athens, lived in the city of Sais ; Sais is also a Sardinian surname ; furthermore there are two places in Sulcis (they couldn’t be coincidences, there are too many, all together) called “Is Sais Superiore” and “Is Sais Inferiore” near Narcao.
(21/08/2023) In other parts of this text I also point out the enormous presence of ancient Greek toponymy in Sardinia: I do not report the same information here so as not to be too repetitive, but you can see the etymology of Sardinian toponymy: the localities, towns and cities of Olbia, Musei, Tharros, Pistis, are just some of the Sardinian toponymy of possible Greek origin.
I have just discovered in recent days (19/03/2023) that some scholars have already noticed this incredible coincidence between Egyptian and Sardinian culture and toponymy on the following web pages:
Among other toponymic analyses, we can analyze the Sardinian toponym of Tharros. “Tharros (in Latin Tarrae, in ancient Greek Thàrras, Θάρρας ) is an archaeological site in the province of Oristano, located in the municipality of Cabras, in Sardinia”. In Greek, Θάρρας means “courage”. If it is true that the Corsican Sardinian block ended up semi-submerged under the sea, or under the Atlantic Ocean, as it was then called, then it is no wonder that the population that remained living on the shores of the sea called their own “courage” city, because it takes courage to live in a city by the sea after the entire Sardinian-Corsican island has half-sunk. Of course, I cannot know the exact reason why they called Tharros “courage”, but this is the best interpretation I have been able to give of the toponymy, at the current moment (11/08/2023).
Sardinia has a complex and layered history, which reflects the various peoples and cultures that have influenced it over the millennia. The Greek presence in Sardinia, although not as extensive as in other parts of the Mediterranean, has left some traces, even in toponymy. Here are some Sardinian places that have toponymic origins linked to ancient Greek culture:
- Olbia : Located in the north-east of Sardinia, the name “Olbia” means “lucky” or “happy” in ancient Greek. The city was an important commercial center in ancient times and maintained contacts with the Greek world.
- Nora : This ancient city, located near Pula in the southern part of the island, has pre-Nuragic and Punic origins, but also links with the Greek world. Some inscriptions found at Nora are in the Phoenician alphabet but in the Greek language.
- Tharros : Another ancient center located in the western part of the island, near Oristano. Although Tharros is most commonly associated with the Phoenicians and Romans, there have been discoveries of pottery and other objects of Greek origin.
- Sulcis : The Sulcis region, in the south-west of Sardinia, had contacts with the Greek world, especially through the nearby colony of Cyrene (in Sardinian Libya). Although the name “Sulcis” is probably of Semitic origin, the Greek presence in the region is demonstrated by various archaeological finds.
- Pistis : As you said, “Pistis” is both a Sardinian surname and the name of a place in Sardinia. In Greek, “Pistis” represents faith, trust or reliability. Although there is no concrete evidence, it is interesting to note this toponymic connection.
- Museums : A place in Sardinia that bears a name that recalls the “Muses”, the Greek deities of music, art and science. Again, it’s difficult to definitively establish a direct link between the country’s name and Greek mythology, but the connection is intriguing.
- Neapolis : This name, which in Greek means “new city”, is a rather common toponym in the ancient world. The presence of a “Neapolis” in Sardinia could suggest the foundation or re-foundation of a city in a period of Greek influences or during a period in which Greek was a language of prestige and culture.
- Calasetta : Although the name “Calasetta” is not directly of Greek origin, the history of the town is linked to the colonization by families from Tabarka, an island off the coast of Tunisia. And Tabarka, in turn, had roots in the ancient Greek city of Kalè Aktè.
These toponymic connections provide fascinating clues to the complex network of interactions between Sardinia and the ancient Mediterranean world. However, it is always important to do thorough research and look at the historical and archaeological context to confirm any theories or hypotheses about the derivation and meaning of these names.
Importantly, although there are traces of Greek influence in Sardinia, the island is currently believed to have had deeper interactions with other cultures such as the Nuragic, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Romans. Therefore, while there are some places with names of Greek origin, it is still believed by scholars that they represent only a small fraction of the island’s rich toponymic tapestry.
Here are some additional Sardinian toponyms that could have Greek origins:
Kalaris : this name could derive from the Greek word “kályx”, which means “cup” or “chalice”, perhaps referring to the shape of the natural port of Cagliari.
Tiana : This name may derive from the Greek word “tíanos”, which means “elongated” or “extended”, perhaps referring to the shape or location of the city.
Pirri : this name could derive from the Greek word “pyrrós”, which means “red” or “fire-colored”, perhaps referring to the color of the soil or rocks in the area.
Monte Astili : this name may derive from the Greek word “ástylos”, which means “without columns” or “unadorned”, perhaps referring to a simple or unadorned architectural style in the area.
Tiscali: This name may derive from the Greek word “skális”, meaning “staircase” or “stairway”, perhaps referring to a steep or terraced landscape in the area.
Zinnias (Zinnigas) : This name may derive from the Greek word “skínos”, meaning “rush” or “reed”, probably referring to a marshy or marshy area in the region.
These are just some possible interpretations of Sardinian toponyms that could have Greek origins. Toponymy is a complex field and it is always important to do thorough research and consider multiple sources and interpretations before drawing conclusions about the origins and meanings of place names.
- “Notes on the Punic and Libyan element in Sardinian onomastics” is a work by Giandomenico Serra that explores the influence of the Punic and Libyan languages in onomastics, or the study of names, in Sardinia 1. The author analyzes how the Punic and Libyan elements are reflected in Sardinian geographical and personal names. This work is important because it offers a unique perspective on the complex linguistic history of Sardinia, an island that has been influenced by many different cultures over the centuries 1 . Punic was the language of the Carthaginians, an ancient Mediterranean people originating from present-day Tunisia, while Libyan refers to the languages spoken by the ancient Berber populations of North Africa 1.This study contributes to a better understanding of the cultural history of Sardinia and its linguistic heritage. However, for a more detailed and complete understanding of the content, I would recommend you consult book 1 directly .
- The Würmian Shore Theory, formulated by Dr. Luigi Usai, states that a large part of the submerged paleocoasts after the Würm were inhabited 1 . This theory is based on the idea that during the Würm glaciation, the last glaciation that took place on some specific areas of Europe such as the Alps or the Sierra Nevada 2 , the coasts that were submerged were inhabited. The validity of a scientific theory depends on its ability to be translated into empirically testable hypotheses 3 . In other words, if a theory is too vague to give rise to hypotheses, it cannot be tested in reality 3Therefore, the plausibility of the Würmian Shore Theory depends on the presence of empirical evidence that supports it. At this point all possible evidence found starting from today 13 September 2023 will be listed.
- Among the archaeological evidence, the submerged city of Nora in Sardinia, right in present-day Sulcis. Nora is a very famous underwater city in Sardinia 1 . It is located a few kilometers from Cagliari, on the south coast of the island, near the renowned seaside tourist center of Pula 1 . Nora is an archaeological site of great interest, where an ancient city dating back to the Phoenician-Punic period was discovered 1. If all my claims about a Sardinian Corsican Atlantis were invented, then it would be an incredible coincidence that there is a semi-submerged city underwater right in Sulcis, the place where I claim to be the capital of the Atlantean civilization. Have underwater archaeological studies ever been carried out on the submerged Nora? Has it been mapped, studied, analysed, hacked, to understand its secrets? How many years ago? And today? What is being done to save the scientific data of this semi-submerged city under the Sardinian sea? The submerged city of Heracleion in Alexandria, Egypt is undergoing massive study and analysis, and submerged Nora in Sardinia? The submerged city of Baia has become a Submerged Park, and Nora in Sardinia?
- Among the archaeological evidence of the submersion of Sulcis, in addition to the submersion of Nora we have the submersion of the submerged port of Melqart of Malfatano. The submerged port of Melqart, located near Porto Pino in Teulada, is one of the greatest archaeological wonders of Sardinia. It is considered the largest port in the ancient Mediterranean and was used by the Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Romans. The port was described by the Greek geographer Ptolemy in the 1st century AD as the Portus Erculi, dedicated to the god of navigation. It could accommodate up to 400 ships and its ancient grandeur is demonstrated by the walls that tower only two meters below the surface of the water, among schools of fish and dancing algae. The fact that it was called Portus Erculi implies that this toponym could be a confirmation of the passage of the figure of Hercules, until now considered mythological, in these places. As explained elsewhere on this website, Hercules is linked to Sulcis and Southern Sardinia also for the story of the Garden of the Hesperides. According to some archaeologists, the roadstead that opens up in front of Capo Malfatano – whose name derives from the Arabic toponym ‘Amal Fatah’, or place of Hope – would have been the base of the Carthaginian military fleet which controlled the western Mediterranean until 146 BC, year in which the Romans won the last Punic war and took over everything, perhaps up to the Strait of Gibraltar. The true story of that era is still to be reconstructed and told, but in the meantime you can immerse yourself in discovering this mysterious site among the remains of buildings, roads and docks. In addition to Nora, Sulcis also features the submerged port of Malfatano dedicated to Hercules. Archaeological evidence is becoming more and more numerous and consistent with the story that Atlantis is the semi-submerged Corsican Sardinian block. Archaeologists already have a lot of evidence at their disposal. A submerged coastal city and port? It means that they were previously on dry land, and therefore it means that southern Sardinia is subjected to submersions. It is therefore not surprising if at a certain point there may have been a more violent submersion than the others which sank many kilometers of coastline under the sea, killing all the prehistoric populations who lived on the coasts feeding on seafood and hunting. and fishing. The story of Atlantis, which seemed like a mythological tale, now takes on much more credible and probable contours, the archaeological evidence is evident and clear to those who know how to interpret it.
- In addition to Nora and the port of Ercole at Capo Malfatano, there are several other submerged structures in Sardinia . Some of these include:
- Porto Flavia : Porto Flavia is an ancient mining port located on the south-western coast of Sardinia, near Masua. It was built at the end of the 19th century to transport ore extracted from the surrounding mines. Much of the structure was carved into the rock, with galleries and tunnels extending below sea level. Although it is not completely submerged, it is a unique structure that connects the region’s past mining activity with the sea.
- Is Zuddas : These are the Caves of Is Zuddas, located in Sulcis-Iglesiente, a region in the south-west of Sardinia. These caves are famous for their limestone formations and stalactites. Even though they are not submerged, they represent a very interesting cave system that may have played a role in prehistoric life and local imagination. It is in fact possible that the karst phenomenon played a very important role in ancient civilizations. Among the various hypotheses that I can venture, when Orpheus searches for Eurydice it is possible that he entered a system of caves like those of Is Zuddasin Sulcis. Perhaps they were considered Hades. Or perhaps the Sardinians were making fun of the Greeks, making fun of them, telling them lies to make them appear stupid and incompetent or perhaps gullible. In this sense, my vision for the moment diverges from the statements of Giorgio Saba who, if I am not mistaken, places Hades near Sant’Antioco, if I have not misunderstood (I refer the reader to study his work entitled: ” Excuse me, where is Hades? Hypotheses on the ancient history of Sardinia”).
- Porto Conte : It is located near Alghero and was a Phoenician-Punic port. Archaeological remains and submerged port structures have been discovered in the bay of Porto Conte, suggesting commercial activities and maritime exchanges in the past.
- Grotta dei Cormorani : This is a submerged cave located in Cala Gonone, on the eastern coast of Sardinia. The cave is only accessible via scuba diving and features spectacular limestone formations.
- Neptune’s Caves : Although not completely submerged, the Neptune’s Caves are a series of spectacular coastal caves accessible by sea or via a stairway carved into the rock. They are located near Alghero and are famous for their stalactites and stalagmites.
- Grotta del Bue Marino : Also located in Cala Gonone, this cave was used in past centuries by sea oxen, a type of monk seal. The cave contains a series of interesting passages and tunnels.
Many of these facilities require access via scuba diving or boat, and some may be subject to restrictions or regulations for the preservation of cultural and natural heritage.
- Among the archaeological evidence, there are many more than 7000 nuraghes scattered throughout Sardinia, sacred wells, giants’ tombs and many other structures including Dolmens, Menhirs, Domus de Janas… there are many interesting archaeological discoveries in Sardinia. The island has a rich history dating back millennia and there are numerous archaeological sites and structures that provide valuable information about the past. Some of Sardinia’s most famous archaeological sites include the ancient megalithic buildings called nuraghe, which were built between 1900 and 730 BC. There are nearly 7,000 nuraghi left standing in Sardinia, and some of the most extensive and extraordinary include Su Nuraxi di Barumini and the Nuraghe of Santu Antine. In addition to the nuraghi, in Sardinia there are also several ancient cities that are worth visiting. These include Tharros, which is located on the western coast of Sardinia, and Nora, which is located on the southern coast of the island. Both of these cities have a rich history and offer visitors a glimpse into the past. Other interesting archaeological sites in Sardinia include the statues of Mont’e Prama, the Tomb of the Giants, the Nuragic Village of Tiscali and the Necropolis of Tuvixeddu in Cagliari. These sites provide valuable information on the history and culture of Sardinia and are worth a visit.
- Among the possible other evidence of a submergence of the Corsican Sardinian block in the current Mediterranean Sea, there is the presence of many submerged cities. These cities had once been built on dry land: this implies a sinking event within the current Mediterranean Sea: therefore not only the Corsican Sardinian geological block sank, but many cities, villages and inhabited centers, in various historical eras. It is therefore possible that this sinking activity is still ongoing today, with all the risks and dangers that derive from it. Here is a list of some submerged cities in the Mediterranean: Pavlopetri, Greece Baia, Italy Olous, Greece Dolchiste,
- Comparison with other Studies : My analysis could gain strength by comparing my conclusions with other scientific studies or archaeological research on Sardinia and the legends of Atlantis. I will therefore create a special session called homonymously: Comparison with other Studies.
- Sardo Corso Atlantean contacts with the rest of the world : here is an interesting excerpt from the Archeology Odyssey article “Stone Villages: the Bronze Age Nuraghi of Sardinia” by Robert H. Tykot ( https://www.baslibrary.org /archaeology-odyssey/6/2/3). The article discusses the history of Sardinia during the Bronze Age and how it was once thought to be isolated from the vibrant cultures of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. However, decades of archaeological research have shown that Bronze Age Sardinians not only maintained contact with the Minoans and Mycenaeans, but may also have moved to the Middle East. Many scholars identify a people called Shardana, mentioned in a number of Egyptian texts, as Sardis. Pharaoh Ramesses II complained that the Shardana “came boldly with their warships from the middle of the sea, none being able to resist them.” It’s fascinating to learn about the history and culture of Sardinia during this period!
They werefound on Mount Carmel remains of what appears to be a sort of Nuragic village in the land of Israel around the 12th century BC
The Nahal Me’arot / Wadi el-Mughara caves are located on the western slopes of the Mount Carmel range and include the Tabun, Jamal, el-Wad and Skhul caves. These caves have been the subject of archaeological research for over 90 years and have revealed a cultural sequence of unparalleled duration, providing an archive of early human life in Southwest Asia. The 54-hectare property contains cultural deposits representing at least 500,000 years of human evolution, demonstrating the unique existence of both Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans within the same Middle Paleolithic, Mousterian, cultural framework. Evidence from numerous Natufian burials and early stone architecture represents the transition from a hunting-gathering lifestyle to agriculture and animal husbandry. As a result, the caves have become a key site of the chronological-stratigraphic framework for human evolution in general and for the prehistory of the Levant in particular. My purely speculative hypothesis is that these places were ancient Sardinian Corsican Atlantean colonies in Lebanon/Palestine/Israel, i.e. in present-day Asia Minor. I therefore assume, on a theoretical level, that in the future numerous other Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean settlements will be found on these lands. In my opinion, it is only a matter of time and improvement of research tools, such as satellite archeology and the massive use of Lidar for the discovery of new remains and ancient settlements. the caves have become a key site in the chronological-stratigraphic framework for human evolution in general and for the prehistory of the Levant in particular. My purely speculative hypothesis is that these places were ancient Sardinian Corsican Atlantean colonies in Lebanon/Palestine/Israel, i.e. in present-day Asia Minor. I therefore assume, on a theoretical level, that in the future numerous other Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean settlements will be found on these lands. In my opinion, it is only a matter of time and improvement of research tools, such as satellite archeology and the massive use of Lidar for the discovery of new remains and ancient settlements. the caves have become a key site in the chronological-stratigraphic framework for human evolution in general and for the prehistory of the Levant in particular. My purely speculative hypothesis is that these places were ancient Sardinian Corsican Atlantean colonies in Lebanon/Palestine/Israel, i.e. in present-day Asia Minor. I therefore assume, on a theoretical level, that in the future numerous other Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean settlements will be found on these lands. In my opinion, it is only a matter of time and improvement of research tools, such as satellite archeology and the massive use of Lidar for the discovery of new remains and ancient settlements. that is, in present-day Asia Minor. I therefore assume, on a theoretical level, that in the future numerous other Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean settlements will be found on these lands. In my opinion, it is only a matter of time and improvement of research tools, such as satellite archeology and the massive use of Lidar for the discovery of new remains and ancient settlements. that is, in present-day Asia Minor. I therefore assume, on a theoretical level, that in the future numerous other Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean settlements will be found on these lands. In my opinion, it is only a matter of time and improvement of research tools, such as satellite archeology and the massive use of Lidar for the discovery of new remains and ancient settlements.
One article of particular note is titled “El-Ahwat: a fortified city of the sea people?” and was written by Israel Finkelstein. It was published in the Israel Exploration Journal , Volume 52, Number 2 in 2002. The article discusses El-Ahwat, an Iron Age I site located on a ridge south of Nahal cIron, the ancient route leading from Egypt and from the coastal plain to the Jezreel Valley and north. The site was excavated by Adam Zertal , who dates it to the late 13th–early 12th century BC and identifies its builders with the Shardana, one of the sea peoples mentioned in Egyptian texts from the 14th to 11th centuries BC and in Ugaritic sources. Its interpretation could have far-reaching implications for the study of the entire Mediterranean basin at the end of the second millennium BC. In this article, the author carefully examines the excavator’s finds and interpretation and argues that El-Ahwat is a typical Iron Age I village inhabited by local people 1 . Iron Age I is a historical period that is part of the Iron Age , which began between 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, and followed the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. During the Iron Age, people across much of Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa began making tools and weapons from iron and steel 1 . Iron Age I began around 1200 BC in the Mediterranean region and the Near East with the collapse of several major Bronze Age civilizations, including the Mycenaean civilization in Greece and the Hittite Empire in Turkey. Ancient cities such as Troy and Gaza were destroyed, trade routes were lost, and literacy declined across the region 1 .
- The Syrtis mentioned by ancient texts:The word “Sirte” derives from the Latin “Syrtis”, which in turn derives from the ancient Greek “Σύρτις” (Súrtis). This term referred to two large sandbars off the coast of Libya, which at this site is the province of Cagliari in present-day Sardinia, and not Libya in Africa. Greater Sirte or Syrtis Major is the Latin name for the Gulf of Sidra, a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the coast of Libya, while Lesser Sirte or Syrtis Minor is the Latin name hitherto attributed to the Gulf of Gabès, a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the east coast of Tunisia. But by rereading Herodotus and reinterpreting the term Libya as “province of Cagliari”, then the Syrtis could become the Gulf of Cagliari and the Gulf of Sant’Antioco in Sardinia. “Σύρτις” (Súrtis) is an ancient Greek word referring to two large shallow gulfs on the coast of Libya. These gulfs were known to be filled with shallows and sandbars, making navigation difficult for ships. Until now it has been believed that Greater Syrtis, or Syrtis Major, was located on the northern coast of African Libya, while Lesser Syrtis, or Syrtis Minor, was located on the eastern coast of Tunisia. This is wrong and this is the reason why until today an aura of mystery hovered over the places near the Syrtis, namely Lake Tritonide and the Garden of the Hesperides, impossible to find until today because they were looking in African Libya and Tunisia rather than where they actually were, i.e. in the current province of Cagliari in Sardinia. Furthermore, “Σύρτις” can also mean “destruction” or “ruin” in Ancient Greek. This metaphorical meaning derives from the difficulty of navigating these gulfs due to the drag towards the shore. However to this day, there is no historical evidence to suggest that these gulfs were associated with destruction or ruin in the literal sense. They were important trade routes for ancient Greek navigators and other Mediterranean peoples. As already explained in other parts of this website, the Sardinian-Corsican block was surrounded by mud, and the paleocoasts had a very shallow sea, after the semi-submergence of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block, so the Greek ships arriving from the parts of the Gulf of Cagliari ran aground. It is very interesting to note that a legend still exists linked to the Church of Bonaria in Cagliari, which talks about a ship that ran aground in the Gulf of Cagliari. My statements are continually confirmed in the real world, in the stories, traditions, languages and dialects of the place, even in the toponymy. The Basilica of Nostra Signora di Bonaria in Cagliari is a very important place of worship in Sardinia, with a centuries-old history which has its origins in legend. According to legend, on March 25, 1370, a ship was hit by a violent storm and in order to survive it was forced to throw all its cargo into the sea, including a heavy wooden chest. Despite the storm, the chest did not sink and the sailors invoked the Madonna. in the local languages and dialects, even in toponymy. The Basilica of Nostra Signora di Bonaria in Cagliari is a very important place of worship in Sardinia, with a centuries-old history that has its origins in legend. According to legend, on March 25, 1370, a ship was hit by a violent storm and in order to survive it was forced to throw all its cargo into the sea, including a heavy wooden chest. Despite the storm, the chest did not sink and the sailors invoked the Madonna. in the local languages and dialects, even in toponymy. The Basilica of Nostra Signora di Bonaria in Cagliari is a very important place of worship in Sardinia, with a centuries-old history that has its origins in legend. According to legend, on March 25, 1370, a ship was hit by a violent storm and in order to survive it was forced to throw all its cargo into the sea, including a heavy wooden chest. Despite the storm, the chest did not sink and the sailors invoked the Madonna. a ship was hit by a violent storm and was forced to throw all its cargo into the sea to survive, including a heavy wooden crate. Despite the storm, the chest did not sink and the sailors invoked the Madonna. a ship was hit by a violent storm and was forced to throw all its cargo into the sea to survive, including a heavy wooden crate. Despite the storm, the chest did not sink and the sailors invoked the Madonna. The storm subsided and the crate reached the port of the city of Cagliari and ended its journey on the slopes of the Bonaria hill 1 2 . The friars opened the chest and found a statue of the Virgin Mary with the Baby Jesus in her arms, holding a candle in her hand that had remained lit despite the sea voyage 1 . This statue became known as Our Lady of Bonaria and became the object of worship of the faithful who climb the steps on both sides of the altar to venerate it 2 .
Reading this story, referring to 1370 AD, it comes to mind that thousands and thousands of years before it was possible and understandable that an ancient Greek ship could run aground on the seabed of the cities and villages that stood in Cagliari on Lake Tritonide. But since Christianity did not exist, while in 1370 religious superstition generated the cult of the Madonna di Bonaria in Cagliari, in prehistory it generated the stories, handed down for millennia, of the Argonauts, of Lake Tritonide and of the tripod given by the Greek sailors to the Sardinians in exchange for hospitality, he generated the story of the Syrtis, the Atlas Mountains and the Garden of the Hesperides.
- The Closures Edict: Impacts on Territorial Management and Sardinian Archaeological Heritage:In the 19th century, Sardinia saw the promulgation of the Edict of Chiudende, a fundamental decree that profoundly influenced the dynamics of land ownership and management on the island. In a period prior to this edict, Sardinian lands were generally collectively owned, being used by shepherds and farmers for agriculture and grazing. However, with its introduction, a new order was established, allowing private entities to demarcate and assert ownership over land. Despite the potential interpretation of the edict as an instrument of agricultural modernization and consolidation of private property, it triggered devastating consequences on the Sardinian archaeological heritage. The most complained about aspect of this transition was the uncontrolled use of historical materials, in particular those deriving from the nuraghi: extraordinary megalithic towers, distinctive symbols of the prehistoric culture of the island. Countless land owners, in the construction of fences or buildings, had the possibility of appropriating materials from the nuraghi, compromising the integrity of these ancient structures. This practice has not only resulted in the reduction or elimination of many of these historical testimonies, but has precluded archaeologists from being able to analyze them in their original context. The original number of available archaeological structures has decreased considerably. The erosion of heritage did not end there. As part of excavation work related to fencing or other building initiatives, several residents likely came across buried archaeological artifacts: from bronze figures, to ceramic artefacts, to metal ingots, up to statues of considerable value. Many of these discoveries, rather than being reported to the relevant authorities, may have been kept secret or sold, depriving specialists and the community of a full understanding of their meaning and value. One can imagine that the unauthorized commercialization of such finds fueled a black market, with Sardinian artefacts finding their way into the collections of enthusiasts all over the world, evading the opportunity of correct cataloging and study. In fact, the archaeological sensitivity that we have today is not the same as that of the past: for example, in Sardinia we have testimonies of at least one Pope who gave the order to demolish series of very ancient Menhirs, as they are considered instruments of worship of pagan deities. Once again, here is the Christian religion that tried to destroy the old Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean cults, as they were considered pagan and the fruit of the Devil. In summary, although the Edict of Chiudende had the intent to modernize agricultural practice and land rights in Sardinia, its repercussions on the archaeological heritage proved profoundly negative. The compromise and looting of Sardinian monuments and artefacts embody a persistent shadow in the cultural history of the island, a warning about the balance between innovation and preservation. although the Edict of the Chiudende had the intention of modernizing agricultural practices and land rights in Sardinia, its repercussions on the archaeological heritage proved profoundly negative. The compromise and looting of Sardinian monuments and artefacts embody a persistent shadow in the cultural history of the island, a warning about the balance between innovation and preservation. although the Edict of the Chiudende had the intention of modernizing agricultural practices and land rights in Sardinia, its repercussions on the archaeological heritage proved profoundly negative. The compromise and looting of Sardinian monuments and artefacts embody a persistent shadow in the cultural history of the island, a warning about the balance between innovation and preservation.
- The Amazons of Myrina founded a city on Lake Tritonide: therefore the Amazons of Queen Myrina lived in the Province of Cagliari; in partial confirmation of this are all the studies of centuries on the fact that in Sardinia there was a matriarchal civilization; further proof of the existence of female warriors in the past is obtained from research in the Isles of Scilly. Recent archaeological discoveries in the Isles of Scilly, off the coast of Cornwall, have uncovered the remains of an Iron Age warrior. The tomb, located on Bryher Island, contained a sword and a mirror, items which suggest the buried woman was a high-ranking warrior. The discovery was described as “extraordinary” and “unprecedented” by archaeologists who worked on the site. The tomb has been dated to around 200 BC and represents one of the few archaeological evidence of the existence of female warriors in antiquity. This discovery offers new perspectives on the lives of women in ancient times and their participation in military activities. It may also provide further information on the legends of the Amazons, a group of female warriors described in Greek mythology. Sources: BBC News, The Guardian.
There is much archaeological evidence to suggest the existence of female warriors in antiquity. For example, a tomb discovered in 2017 in Armenia revealed the remains of two women living around 3,000 years ago, suggesting they were involved in military battles, possibly as warriors on horseback who fired arrows 1 . Furthermore, there are many stories of female warriors in various cultures and mythologies, such as the Amazons of Greek mythology 2 . Also in Japan, the Onna-musha were female warriors who fought in battle alongside the male samurai 3 . In ancient Persia, there was Queen Tomyris, who became queen of the Massegetai upon the death of her husband and fought Cyrus of Persia against her for her kingdom4 . These are just a few examples of the many female warriors who have left their mark on history.
- The Hesperides Islands (in Latin: Hesperidum Insulae) are islands in the Atlantic Ocean (i.e. in the sea around Sardinia and Corsica until at least the 5th century BC as evidenced by the writings of Herodotus and the statements of Sonchis of Sais) ; in the classical tradition the Hesperides Islands are probably all the islands encountered before reaching the Pillars of Hercules in Carloforte, in particular Sardinia and all the small islands such as Sant’Antioco, Carloforte, the Isola dei Cavoli, Serpentara, to name a few . They are also known by the name of the Islands of the Ladies of the West because the Amazons, i.e. the Ladies of the West, lived there, on Lake Tritonide of Cagliari and its province, up to the current Capoterra.
- Possible causes of the sinking of Atlantide Sardo Corsa can be at least three , according to my autonomous and independent reflections: the slab roll back of geological adjustment of the Sardinian Corsican Atlantis island ; the Meltwater Pulses, most notably perhaps the Meltwater Pulse 1b ; I hypothesized the presence of a Wadati-Benioff area under the Sulciswhich starts at least from the Strait of Gibraltar and reaches at least as far as Pompeii and Herculaneum, passing under the Sulcis. This fault, activated in the past, may have caused earthquakes, tsunamis and various destructions, because the epicenter is located right under Sulcis; therefore even minor earthquakes may have been devastating as they were positioned directly under the inhabited, populated area. This fact could also have caused the collapse of Mount Atlas where Poseidon and Clito built the center of the Capital of Atlantis. The collapse of the Mount may have been interpreted by the populations as a divine punishment for the arrogance of the Atlanteans, or for the arrogance of the Sulcitani. The ridiculous thing is that today Sulcis is the poorest area in all of Italy. This is truly a paradox:The date of the sinking of Corsican Sardinian Atlantis has not yet been precisely defined, so in reality the Meltwater Pulses may not be involved in the submersion process . From a geological point of view, there are also at least two points to keep in mind: the Graben-Horst geological structure of various parts of the Corsican Sardinian territory, in particular of Campidano ; secondly, the karst sinkhole phenomenon typical of Sulcis: a violent ingress of water could have created immense damage due to the karst of the place, which still needs to be explored and studied.
- present-day Corsica was the mountainous part north of Atlantis ; today an island appears because it was submerged, it is an optical illusion. Corsica and Sardinia were mountain terraces of the island of Atlantis, so after the catastrophic partial submergence they remained out of the water, and today we believe that they are two islands, detached, separate, but this is absolutely not true;
- the Sulcis Mountains were called the Atlas Mountains , and took their name from the son of Poseidon called Atlas, the first of 5 pairs of twins, therefore the first of 10 brothers;
- Fruttidoro di Capoterra is the Garden of the Hesperides;
The Garden of the Hesperides bore golden fruits, and was located at the ends of the known earth; an analogy was found with the apparently mythological story of the Hesperides in Sardinian toponymy: in fact, there is a place called Fruttidoro, located in the town of Capoterra, in Sardinia. Capoterra, from the Sardinian Caputerra, then in Latin “Caput Terrae”, is the “cape of the Earth”, i.e. the extreme edge known in antiquity (Paleolithic/Mesolithic, around 11,600 years ago, to have an approximate but useful date for understanding), while the current location of Fruttidoro in Capoterra would be the legendary Garden of the Hesperides. This new discovery has not yet been counter-validated by scholars, nor have stratigraphies been carried out for the related counter-verification, from Wikipedia we learn that ” The excavations returned various Nuragic and Mycenaean ceramics (coming from Argolis , Crete , and Cyprus  ) of the Mycenaean III B and Mycenaean III C types dating back to the 14th – 13th and 13th – 12th centuries respectively BC as evidence of the important exchanges that took place between the Nuragic and Mycenaean civilizations .”Mycenaean pottery is the pottery tradition associated with the Mycenaean period in ancient Greece, which lasted from 1550 to 1050 BC. It encompassed a variety of styles and shapes, including the stirrup vessel, and was heavily influenced by Minoan precedents based on Crete. Mycenaean pottery typically displays stylized representations of marine and plant life and shows an affinity for minimalist linear designs, a trend that would influence early archaic and classical ancient Greek pottery from the 9th century BC Mycenaean pottery produced with the wheel ( 1550-1450 BC) from mainland Greece has been described as “provincial Cretan”, meaning that although it was produced in mainland Greece, it was heavily influenced by Minoan pottery. Manunza wrote about Nuragic and Mycenaean artefacts along a Bronze Age road near Bia ‘e Palma, Selargius (CA) 1 . Furthermore, there is an article by Donatella Salvi on the archaic majolica of the Bia ‘e Palma well in Selargius 2. Therefore the contacts between ancient Sardinians and Mycenaean populations are clearly demonstrated by archaeological and historical data, as well as by the artefacts found which demonstrate a relationship between these peoples. It is therefore not fantasy, but there is concrete, historical, archaeological evidence documented by renowned professionals. The evidence in support of this hypothesis is therefore numerous and localized in several geographical points of southern Sardinia: there is evidence of contacts between Sardinia and the eastern Mediterranean during the Bronze Age. For example, Mycenaean pottery was found in a Nuragic environment 1 . After 1200 BC, with the economic and political collapse of the palace cultures in Mycenae and Crete, only the Cypriots continued trade with Sardinia1. Yes, the Nuragic civilization was not isolated and closed, but fully integrated into the dynamics of commercial and cultural exchanges that characterized life in the Mediterranean in that period. One of the civilizations with which the Nuragic Sardinians had certainly established a relationship of systematic and intense commercial and cultural exchanges was that of the Mycenaeans, interested in the metal trade. Evidence of such relationships has been found in Sardinia in the form of several significant ceramic finds. Well known are the Mycenaean ceramic fragments found in the Antigori nuraghe, significantly located on the southern coast of Sardinia, near Sarroch, but also the so-called “alabastron” found in the Arrubiu nuraghe in Orroli .Equally important and interesting is the ivory head of Mitza Purdia (Decimoputzu) which depicts a character with a helmet completely similar to those described in Homeric works as typical of Achaean warriors. This evidence suggests that the Nuragic Sardinians had established a relationship of systematic and intense commercial and cultural exchanges with the Mycenaeans, interested in the metal trade. Therefore, there is a greater probability that the legend or myth of the Garden of the Hesperides is nothing more than the result of the first contacts between these populations.
If all this turns out to be correct, as is now clear to the writer, it means that at least three Sardinian women from Capoterra were called Hesperides. But then what was this mythological Garden? Is it a structure? Of what nature? Will it be possible, by carrying out core sampling and stratigraphy, to find Neolithic, Mesolithic or Paleolithic remains that can validate that structures, peoples and civilians were present millennia ago? Why Hesperides? Why the name Hesperides? And what really happened?
Now rereading the myth of the Garden of the Hesperides with this new information, it seems that an ancient Greek man named Hercules headed towards the Frutti d’Oro beach of Capoterra, docked and established some form of relationship with the inhabitants of Capoterra. The myth says that his aim was to steal three golden apples. Today, however, we can only make hypotheses: was it an orange plant? Oranges didn’t exist in Greece, and so Hercules was sent to steal three oranges so he could then plant them in Greece and grow them independently?
How was Ercole welcomed by the inhabitants of Capoterra? In friendship? Why are not men mentioned, but the dragon Ladon? What was this dragon coiled around the tree? Did the people of Capoterro give him and his sailor friends something to drink? Did they offer them fruit from a Garden to feed them because on ships they risked catching scurvy? Did they offer him lemons to cure his scurvy? Or what could these “golden fruits” be? Was there really a tree with golden fruit hanging from it, perhaps dedicated to some deity, or did these fruits only have the color of gold? Was it really an apple tree? But then the gold-colored variant of the apple only existed in Capoterra, and did the Greeks “stole” it to plant it in Greece? If this episode has been handed down over the millennia, perhaps it contains some very important information: why was Ercole sent to “steal” from Frutti D’Oro of Capoterra? What exactly did he have to steal? A fruit variant that only existed in Capoterra? This type of philosophical-scientific investigation also requires the contribution of expert botanists, so it is not easy to solve. The paleogeographic part already required combining hundreds of pieces of information from different disciplines.
While the potential discovery, supported by the claims of ancient historians, is extraordinary and jaw-dropping in wonder, it raises far more questions than it answers.
Ercole at Capoterra in present-day Sardinia. But was it already Sardinia or was it still the legendary Corsican Sardinian island currently semi-submerged? When Ercole landed in Capoterra, had the Sardinian-Corsican geological block already sunk?
The Garden of the Hesperides was located in the Atlantic Ocean (Paleolithic), which as explained on the website atlantisfound.it, was the Paleolithic/Mesolithic name of the sea that surrounded the island, then a Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean emerged land. The Hesperides Islands must therefore have been the archaic names with which Sardinia and Corsica were defined in the millennia following the semi-submergence of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block. Hesperidum Insulae, “The Evening Islands”, because at sunset, when the Greeks looked towards the west, sailing in that direction from their most remote position, i.e. with great probability the island of Ischia, they saw 2 distant islands, which today are known by the names of Sardinia and Corsica, and which are plateaus of emerged land of the semi-submerged Sardinian-Corsican geological block. The linguist and glottologist Massimo Pittau analyzed the location of the Garden of the Hesperides, presumably placing it in Sardinia and pointing out that it was still a legend; I, however, in my bold ignorance, go further and propose that it is not a legend, but a place that actually existed located in Fruttidoro di Capoterra, as stated in other terms by the myth.
Obviously, a serious scholar should study all the toponymy of Capoterra and nearby places, to verify the oldest names that can be traced back and whether in the past they were called in other ways. In any case, a good analysis based on satellite archeology would be appropriate, to highlight very ancient settlements, Mesolithic or Neolithic, present on the site or UNDER the site (because with great probability they will now be submerged by the superimposed layers over the millennia). Following these interpretations, we can analyze other aspects of the mythology: Thetis was a Sardinian. Peleus married a Sardinian, but the Greeks called them “sea nymphs”. The garden of the Hesperides is in Fruttidoro di Capoterra, in Sardinia, between the Atlas Mountains, i.e. the Sulcis mountains, and the Paleolithic Atlantic Ocean, i.e. the current Mediterranean. Teti was the eponym of the Sardinian city still called Teti today. Wild boar hunting therefore took place in Sardinia: this custom still exists. By rereading the myth in this key, every piece falls into place and all these stories begin to make perfectly logical sense. In the Paleolithic, the Ocean of Atlantis, i.e. the Atlantic Ocean, was the name that designated part of the current Mediterranean Sea, as in the image below
In light green it is possible to see the whole part of the Corsican Sardinian block which was submerged around 9600 BC by a geological catastrophe, also described in Timaeus, which is a text not only of cosmology, but also of astronomical geography , geography and geology.
But since in the historical period, under the Romans the Atlantic Ocean was named Mare Nostrum, the Paleolithic nomenclature had now disappeared from most texts. However, many scholars and ancient texts still reported the term Atlantic Ocean. Later, it was called the Mediterranean, so the scholars/scientists of the last 2000 years or so focused on looking for the island of Atlantis, i.e. the Sardinian-Corsican geological block semi-submerged in around 9600 BC, in the wrong place: this is why no one has ever found.
If it were proven that the author of the article was telling the truth and that the Garden of the Hesperides was a real place located in Frutti D’Oro di Capoterra in Sardinia, this could have important implications for the understanding of ancient history and mythology. It could provide new information on the spread of myths and legends and their relationship with historical reality. Furthermore, it could stimulate further research and archaeological excavations in the area to look for further evidence to support this theory.
All explanations on the website https://www.atlantisfound.it/it_it/2023/02/12/che-atlantide-sia-il-blocco-sardo-corso-sommerso
Updated July 18, 2023
Yesterday afternoon I, Luigi Usai, woke up after a few hours of sleep. I haven’t had a time to sleep for months now: I sleep when I’m exhausted, at any time of day or night, for as long as I need. This favored my dream activity, which will not be the subject of explanations or disclosures here. Yesterday, when I suddenly woke up, I don’t know why I searched for documentation online, stumbling across a text that quoted Herodotus on the Atlanteans:
while I was reading Herodotus’ text translated into Italian I exploded into exclamations of joy: Herodotus’ text speaks of Sulcis in Sardinia! What Herodotus says confirms all my statements relating to Sulcis Capital of Atlantis! I was very excited and full of joy, but at the same time full of sadness: it is impossible to communicate these discoveries to the scientific world. Unfortunately, the majority of scholars are so full of what Blaise Pascal called the “Boria of the Learned”, that it becomes very difficult to share their scientific discoveries.
THE TEXTS OF HERODOTUS’ STORIES SCIENTIFICALLY CONFIRM THAT THE ATLAS PEOPLE ARE ESTABLISHED IN SULCIS, IN PRESENT-DAY SARDINIA.
With this text I invite the World Scientific Community to verify and counter-validate my statements, which will be public from this moment on. Now that the claims that Atlantis is the Sardinian-Corsican Geological Block semi-submerged in the Paleolithic Atlantic Ocean have confirmation in the texts of Herodotus. I publicly and officially ask for verification by scholars from all over the world, in order to bring the knowledge of the Ancient World a few steps further, and allow new discoveries to scholars from all over the world.
Thanks in advance to the Scientific Community.
Slowly, I will paste here a copy of Herodotus’ texts with the step by step explanation via satellite images showing the veracity of what the Greek historian said.
the Atlantic Ocean was the Paleolithic name of the Mediterranean around the Sardinian-Corsican island;
- Etymology of Mauretania: Sulcis is inhabited by the Maurreddus. The territories conquered by the Maurreddus were called Maurreddania. In Latin, this geographical name has been distorted, so in some very ancient maps the name Maurrettania is found with two “R”s and two “Ts”. Later Latin prevailed, so Maurreddania became Mauretania, without doubles, which are typical of the Sardinian language. Many people, to imitate the Sardinian pronunciation, still today double the consonants of all Italian words to make fun of Sardinians or to be ironic, both in an offensive sense and in a purely joking and ironic sense. Therefore, if an ancient text states that “Hercules went to Mauritania”, it should be interpreted as “Hercules went to Sulcis”. Present-day Mauritania is probably called this because it was a land conquered by the Sulcians,
The etymology of the name “Mauretania” therefore does not derive from the Latin word “Maurītānus”, which means “Mauritan, [one] of the Moors”, it does not derive from “Maurus” which means “Moor”, from the ancient Greek Μαυρός (Maurós ) ³, but it would derive from the root of the Sardinian term “Maurreddu”, i.e. “Sulcitano”, “inhabitant of Sulcis”. The Sulcis region in Sardinia is inhabited by the Maurreddus, who were later defined as Mauros or Mauri, and due to monophthongization, Mori. The phenomenon by which the diphthong “au” becomes “o” is called monophthongization. Monophthongization is the transformation of a diphthong or triphthong into a long vowel. For example, in the evolution of Latin, the diphthong “au” becomes “o” in words such as “laudo”, “plaudo”, “gaudeo”, which give rise to rustic and vulgar forms such as “lodo”, “plodo”, “god(e)o” 1. Some might object that these are mere theoretical speculations, but in reality these statements are supported by the Sardinian flags and the Corsican flag. The hypothesis that the Mauri or Moors were the Sulcitani of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block is interesting, but I have not found evidence to support this theory in my research. However, the Sardinian-Corsican flags present some characteristics that could be interpreted as possible evidence in support of this hypothesis. The flag of Sardinia, also known as the flag of the four Moors, features four black-skinned Moor heads, arranged in a cross of St. George. The flag of Corsica, however, features only one black-skinned Moor. Some theories suggest that the Moors represent the four Saracen kings defeated by the Aragonese during the Battle of Alcoraz in Spain 1. Other theories suggest that the Moors represent the judges of the Kingdom of Sardinia or the four historical judges of the island. But under the powerful light of the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean theory, now the meaning of the flags of Sardinia and Corsica take on a totally new and incredible light: it is a logical reversal. Previously it was believed that it was the African Moors who had conquered, dominated and acculturated the Sardinian Corsicans, while now the principle is reversed: it is the Sardinian Corsicans who have dominated, as Sonchis of Sais had stated in Plato’s Timaeus and Critias, all of the North Africa to Egypt, exporting the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean culture and the megalithic culture, perhaps also for the construction of the Egyptian pyramids. If this last information is true,
- Libya, in the 5th century BC, according to the texts of Herodotus and Solon and Plato, was an area in the current province of Cagliari ; the writer Dr. Luigi Usai understood that when Herodotus is talking about Libya, he is not talking about the Libya that we know in Africa, but rather about Libya as a territory in the province of Cagliari . He realized that Antaeus is the King of Libya ; using logical induction, he reasoned that if Libya is a portion of present-day Campidano in Sardinia, and if Antaeus was the King of Libya, then by logical induction then Antaeus was a King of Campidano. Again on an intuitive level, the writer Luigi Usai realized that in fact in Sardinia there is a temple of Antas, which could represent Antaeus as an ancient Sardinian deity. In fact, if the Temple of Antas is dedicated to Sardus Pater, why not call it the Temple of Sardus Pater? These reflections and many others, such as the presence of the Amazons on Lake Tritonide in Libya… but this time, reflecting on the fact that Lake Tritonide is in the South of Sardinia, all Herodotean Geography returns to its place correctly. The Libyan Desert instead would be, according to the writer Luigi Usai, the Sardinian Desert of Porto Pino, which is practically unknown to the whole world except the Sardinians themselves.
“Atlantis and the secrets of the Sardinian deserts”When we talk about Atlantis, popular imagination often transports us to distant and mysterious submerged lands. However, the search for this legendary civilization may take us much closer to home than we think, namely to the sands of the Desert des Agriates in Corsica and the Sardinian Libyan desert of Porto Pino. The Desert des Agriates, despite its name, is not a real and truly desert in the traditional sense. It is, however, a wild and rocky area of 15,000 hectares between Saint-Florent and Ile-Rousse. But what connects it to the legend of Atlantis? And how does it relate to the Porto Pino desert in Sardinia? Both the Desert des Agriates and the Sardinian Libyan Desert of Porto Pino share a number of unique geological and historical features. Both represent almost inhospitable regions, dominated by sand dunes and characterized by a landscape that seems suspended in time. Archaeological finds near these areas have shown traces of ancient civilizations, which could suggest that they were once thriving areas, before some major cataclysm or climate change. On this site I declare that, in my opinion, when we say that there was also a desert in Atlantis, we are talking about the Porto Pino desert and the Corsican Des Agriates desertIn conclusion, as the search for the legendary Atlantis continues, it is possible that some of the most significant clues are hidden in the sand dunes of our desert neighbors. And as the mystery of Atlantis slowly unravels, areas like the Desert des Agriates and Porto Pino serve as powerful reminders of the ancient civilizations that once dominated these lands and the secrets they may still hold beneath their sands.
- at least the following peoples lived in the territories of present-day Sardinia : Ausei, Maclei, Libi, Atlanti, Ammonii, Nasomonii, Lotofagi, Ethiopian troglodytes; the Giligami are a people of Libya who border the Adirmachids and the Asbists. They inhabit a territory that goes from the Aphrodisias island to the mouth of the Sirte, where silphium is cultivated. The ammonii, on the other hand, are most likely the ones who created ammonia: the Ammonii created ammonia; This is not a joke, I will refine this information as I study the topic, but it is already an excellent starting point for researchers who want to delve deeper into the topic on their own.
- In present-day Sulcis there was a desert that flanked at least two salt mountains: one in Carloforte , still present, and one next to Mount Atlas, which now seems to have disappeared (data to be verified) while the other location could be “Perd’ and Sali” which means “Salt Stone” in Sardinian : it would therefore have remained only a toponymic reference to that ancient mountain of salt that was previously present and has now disappeared, perhaps melted by the rains;
- the set of lakes of present-day Cagliari and its province were seen as a single enormous lake, which was called Lake Tritonide;
- the Amazons of Myrina lived in Lake Tritonide;
- Lake Tritonide took its name from an ancient ruler who was then mythologized according to an euhemeristic procedure, as also happened with Poseidon; Lake Tritonide took its name from the ancient ruler Triton, of whom various documents can be found in ancient texts;
- archaeologists are aware that ancient Sardinia was matriarchal, but until now I had never heard any archaeologist affirm that the Amazons were Sardinian, nor that Lake Tritonide is in Cagliari and its province, up to Capoterra; I therefore think that these are very original ideas of mine and obviously I am convinced that they are also right ideas, because the whole mosaic puts together all the puzzles that were not clear to me. There were too many incomprehensible absurdities in ancient times, but now, by renaming the satellite maps of Cagliari, Sulcis and Southern Sardinia, everything starts to make perfect logical sense again.
- Herodotus reports that the Atlanteans did not dream dreams at night: in fact, the incubation rite took place in Sardinia. Since I have never studied it seriously in my life, I cannot explain what it is, but archaeologists will perfectly understand the implications of this point I am making. This is further evidence in favor of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean paradigm. Probably the Sulcitans/Atlanteans were annoyed by the fact that they did not dream, and so the rite of incubation was born for reasons related to the satisfaction of needs of this people that we might never even understand, unless we found new archaeological sources that explain or clarify these facts.
- Herodotus mentions in the Histories, chapter IV, of mountains of salt ; I think one was in Carloforte where salt pans still exist today : imagine what it must have been like 2500 years ago! I think there was a second mountain of salt where the Sardinian toponymy still has this name: “Perd’e Sali”, which means “Salt Stone” in Sardinian Campidanese and Sardinian Sulcitano.
- There is now the possibility that the Temple of Antas in Sardinia, in reality, is the temple of Antaeus . I therefore have to revisit all the sources and texts to understand if this is a new discovery. Bing states that: “The Temple of Antas is a Punic-Roman temple located in Fluminimaggiore, southern Sardinia, Italy. It is dedicated to the adoration of the eponymous god of the Sardinians, Sardus Pater Babai (Sid Addir for the Carthaginians) 1 . The archaeological complex includes a village and a Nuragic necropolis, a Punic temple, a Roman temple and Roman quarries 2The temple was built with local limestone and is located in a valley dominated by Mount Conca s’Omu. The current monument is the Roman one, discovered by General La Marmora in 1836 and restored in 1967. Built in various phases with local limestone, an access staircase and a podium adorned with elegant, perfectly aligned columns remain standing. 3 In ancient times it was already famous, cited by the Egyptian geographer Ptolemy (2nd century AD). “
- Sardinia or Atlantis Sardo Corsa was also called Nesos Espera . The Hesperides Islands are therefore Sardinia and Corsica and the small islands such as S. Antioco and Carloforte; Esperidi is an adjective that designates the women who live in Espera, i.e. in Sardinia; Espera is also the name of the westernmost island that remained on Lake Tritonide in the current Cagliari Ponds. We must therefore be careful not to confuse the term Espera when it refers to Sardinia and when it refers to the island of Lake Tritonide.
- In this study, we propose a new perspective for archaeologists regarding the mythological figure of the Minotaur. In particular, we suggest exploring the possibility that the Minotaur is a Sardinian mythological figure, and making comparisons between the Minotaur and the Sardinian legendary creatures Su Boe Erchitu and Su Boe Muliache. These creatures are described as follows: “Su Boe Erchitu is a legendary creature of Sardinian folk tradition. This should not be confused with Su Boe Muliache, another Sardinian legendary creature” (Wikipedia). Furthermore, we propose to examine the possibility that the Minotaur is an ancient Sardinian belief/legend revived in Crete by the Minoans, who were ancient Sardinian-Corsican migrations -Atlanteans in Crete. As is well known, Arthur Evans arbitrarily chose the word “Minoans” to describe this civilization. Furthermore, there is also the androcephalic Bull or bronze statue of Nule, which could confirm these hypotheses. We invite scholars to explore these new paths of thought and to be open to examining possibilities that until now had been excluded a priori. In particular, we suggest re-examining the toponymy of Sulcis, since the names of the towns that refer to the Platonic myth must have a reason. For example, in Carbonia there is a hamlet called “Acqua Callentis”; next door is Caput Acquas; in Nuxis “S’acqua callenti de Basciu”, S’Acqua callenti de Susu; the disappeared medieval town of Acquafredda, which left the Acquafredda castle; the source of Zinnigas; and there are even links to Egyptian toponymy: Heliopolis (city of the sun) and in Sulcis Terr’e Soli (land of the sun, Terresoli). Sais in Egypt and Is Sais Inferiore and Is Sais Superiore in Sulcis. Furthermore, we propose to seriously consider this toponymy and to follow these new unexplored paths. For example, Mesolithic or Neolithic people may have used the terms “goats” or “sheep” or “donkeys” or “pigs” deictically. In fact: Cabras (“goats” in Sardinian) is a surname; it is a locality; it is the meeting place of the Giants of Mont’e Prama; and means goats and has a pond. And right in Sulcis there is the Is Brebeis pond (it means “sheep” in Sardinian) while there is the Molentargius pond (molenti means “donkey” in Sardinian) and there is the Sale Porcus pond (porcus means “pigs” in Sardinian). Furthermore, the Cabras pond is the largest in the world, which may lead us to suppose that it was caused by tectonics or telluric; its duck shape then could have some hidden meaning that we still don’t understand well (the Titicaca has the shape of a puma hunting a viscacha). Finally, we suggest as a first step for archaeologists or superintendents the immediate obtaining of the bathymetries at very high definition of the seabed of all the water basins of Sulcis and Cabras. In particular, we propose bathymetries of the Is Brebeis pond, the Porto Pino pond, the Porto Botte pond and Monte Prano. This would be a great start to explore these new avenues of thought. Furthermore, we suggest thorough checks in all the Sulcis caves up to the layers of 9600 BC and beyond. In summary, This study proposes a new perspective for archaeologists regarding the mythological figure of the Minotaur and suggests exploring new paths of thought regarding the toponymy of Sulcis. We invite scholars to examine these possibilities and pursue these new, unexplored paths. We hope that these proposals will stimulate further research and discussion in this field.
- I am currently testing the hypothesis that Tartessos is the Sardinian island of Sant’Antioco , but I do not yet have sufficient and incontrovertible evidence.
- Eumerism : Poseidon was an ancient ruler of the Sardinian-Corsican island, later deified. According to my theory, there is the possibility that in the Sulcis mountains there are still prehistoric remains of the capital of Atlantis, probably covered by debris exactly as happened in Göbekli Tepe. It is therefore a question of applying the same scientific methods to bring to light the historical and scientific finds of the Atlantean past.
- The Basque people are an ancient Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean migration , clearly visible to those who have the sufficient culture to see it: for this purpose we mention the figure of the Zanpantzar or Joaldun which is a “genetic” variant of the figures of the Sardinian Mammuttones, of the Boes and Sardinian Merdules . The Basque language is also a prehistoric linguistic variant of the Sardinian-Corsican languages and dialects.
To better understand this post, see the video on YouTube:
relating to the Carnaval Ituren – Zubieta 2019 Navarra – Pais Vasco and see in particular the figure of the Joaldunak of Ituren ( Ioaldunak à Ituren (Navarre)). Zanpantzar or Joaldun is a traditional character of Basque culture from the Navarre towns of Ituren and Zubieta who announces the arrival of Carnival by shaking their cowbells ( joareak or joaleak ) in the last week of January. There are currently Zanpantzar appares in both Navarre and the Basque Country
(text on Zanpantzar translated from Basque wikipedia). The figure of the Zanpantzar or Joaldun are nothing more than “cultural mutations” of the Sardinian masks of the Boes and Merdules, of the Mammuttones and other masks of the Sardinian carnival, which in the Basque countries have changed, as happens in genetic mutations over millennia and millennia. Also note the etymological convergence between the toponyms of Ittiri (Sardinian town) and Ituren (Navarre Basque town). There are several similarities between the Sardinian and Basque languages . According to an article in La Nuova Sardegna, there are hundreds of similar words between the two languages, as well as many linguistic affinities . For example, the holly plant is called “galostiu” in Sardinian and “gorostoi” in Basque.There are also similarities in place names, such as the cities of Aritzo in Sardinia and Aritzu in the Basque Country. I want to add that I have personally noticed two rivers called Arrexi and Arantza, which in my Sardinian Campidanese dialect Asseminese mean respectively “Root” (“Arrexi”, which we can also say “Arrexini”) and “Arantza” or “Arantzu” (i.e. orange ), which we can also say “Arangiu”. Among Sardinians, the variability of linguistic terms is very famous: in Sardinia there are an infinite number of linguistic mutations that Sardinians currently accept, for example the olive, which provides the oil drupe, the fruit of the olive tree, can be called “olia ”, “obia”, meaning “olive”. Now we have incredible linguistic consistencies that only a Sardinian understands intuitively, being due to prehistoric Sardinian-Corsican migrations, because those who speak these languages understand it instinctively. If we then add exclusively Sardinian figures such as the Mammuttones and the Boes and the Merdules, and we realize the existence in the Basque countries of the figures ofZanpantzar or Joaldun, then the fact that the Basques are an ancient Corsican Sardinian migration becomes increasingly clear and evident. In addition to vocabulary, there are also phonetic similarities between the two languages. For example, neither language has the “V” sound, which is present in most Indo-European languages. Both languages also have the “TZ” sound, which is not present in surrounding languages. These similarities suggest that there may have been historical connections between the two regions. Some researchers have proposed that there may have been a prehistoric migration from the Iberian Peninsula to Sardinia, which could explain the linguistic similarities.
It is therefore necessary to establish scientific and academic, as well as archaeological and historical relations between the Basque and Sardinian-Corsican universities, in order to discover all the other relations that show the common prehistoric origins. Until today it has been mistakenly believed that the Basque people came out of nowhere, because their habits and customs and their language were too different from the French and Spanish ones… in reality they were different simply because the Basque people were Sardinians who they migrated from an area of Sardinia, although it is not yet clear which one it was, to colonize those places.
Those who have a careful geographical eye, then, might also happen to notice that the profile of the Sulcis coast and the profile of the Pyrenees coast are almost identical.! (Be careful, this is my personal intuition that hasn’t yet been proven). So the prehistoric sailors who arrived on the coast of the Pyrenees may have felt that geographical place was almost identical to their beloved Sulcis, and perhaps this is one of the reasons that led them to land and try to colonize those places: the sense of familiarity with the Sardinian coast of Sulcis.
Authors of the caliber of Juan Martin Elexpuru they realized the incredible linguistic affinities between Basque and Sardinian, but as has happened for millennia for Sardinia, the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean paradigm was totally overturned: Juan Martin Elexpuru thought that it was the Basques who had “colonized” Sardinia. Instead, the exact opposite happened: it was the Sardinian-Corsicans who colonized the Basque Country, also bringing traditions such as those of the Zanpantzar or Joaldun and the habits and customs and the language.
Sardinia and the Basque Country are two European regions that have some cultural and linguistic similarities. In particular, both regions have indigenous languages that are not traceable to any of the Indo-European languages. Furthermore, both regions have an ancient and complex history that has led to the formation of unique and distinctive cultures. However, despite these similarities, the relationship between the two regions has not yet been fully explored. One of the ways to explore this relationship is through the study of population genetics. In particular, the comparison between the Sardinian and Basque populations could provide valuable information on the possible common prehistoric origin of the two populations. This comparison could be made through the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA of the two populations. The importance of this comparison lies in the fact that it could provide information on the ancient history of Europe and the migration of prehistoric populations. Furthermore, it could help to better understand the history of Sardinia and the Basque Country and strengthen ties between the two regions. A study published in PubMed compared the mitochondrial DNA of 50 Basque individuals and 50 Sardinian individuals. The study found that the two populations have similar genetic diversity and that both populations have a strong affinity with European populations. Another study published in Nature compared the DNA of 70 ancient individuals collected from 21 archaeological sites in Sardinia with the DNA of other ancient and modern individuals. The study found that the Sardinian population has a complex genetic history and that it presents similarities with European and Mediterranean populations. In conclusion, the comparison between the Sardinian and Basque populations could provide valuable information on the possible common prehistoric origin of the two populations. This comparison could be made through the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA of the two populations. The importance of this comparison lies in the fact that it could provide information on the ancient history of Europe and the migration of prehistoric populations.” The study found that the Sardinian population has a complex genetic history and that it presents similarities with European and Mediterranean populations. In conclusion, the comparison between the Sardinian and Basque populations could provide valuable information on the possible common prehistoric origin of the two populations. This comparison could be made through the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA of the two populations. The importance of this comparison lies in the fact that it could provide information on the ancient history of Europe and the migration of prehistoric populations.” The study found that the Sardinian population has a complex genetic history and that it presents similarities with European and Mediterranean populations. In conclusion, the comparison between the Sardinian and Basque populations could provide valuable information on the possible common prehistoric origin of the two populations. This comparison could be made through the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA of the two populations. The importance of this comparison lies in the fact that it could provide information on the ancient history of Europe and the migration of prehistoric populations.” the comparison between the Sardinian and Basque populations could provide valuable information on the possible common prehistoric origin of the two populations. This comparison could be made through the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA of the two populations. The importance of this comparison lies in the fact that it could provide information on the ancient history of Europe and the migration of prehistoric populations.” the comparison between the Sardinian and Basque populations could provide valuable information on the possible common prehistoric origin of the two populations. This comparison could be made through the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA of the two populations. The importance of this comparison lies in the fact that it could provide information on the ancient history of Europe and the migration of prehistoric populations.”
- If the Goddess Athena was born on Lake Tritonide , and if my statements prove correct, it means that the ancients were trying to tell us that the Goddess Athena was born in the Lakes in the province of Cagliari. This is incredible: why does the priest of Sais tell Sonchis that Athena founded the first city of Athens and the city of Sais in Egypt a thousand years later ; Athena founded the city of Sais in Egypt 8000 years before Solon’s visit to Egypt, around 590 BC; this implies that Athena, Sardinian goddess, founded the city of Sais around 8590 BC; the Sardinian goddess Athena founded the first Athens a thousand years before Sais, therefore around 9590 BC. One thing still remains to be clarified:the title of Sardinian Athena, goddess of War, was passed as an honorific title from woman to woman in the Sardinian matriarchal system, for thousands of years, just as the title of Pharaoh was passed from father to son in ancient Egypt? Was the goddess Athena Sardinian?Minerva is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Athena. They are essentially the same goddess, but with different names due to the different cultures that worshiped them. Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools, and commerce in Roman mythology, while Athena had similar roles in Greek mythology. According to some recent studies, it is believed that Aeneas (Aeneas) landed in Castro, Italy, where there was a “rock with the temple of Minerva”. So, if all these reasonings are correct, then Athena is of Sardinian origins and the Latin Minerva is a Sardinian goddess. It is therefore possible on a speculative and purely theoretical level that the mother goddess worshiped by the ancient Mediterranean peoples was nothing other than a Sardinian divinity called by many names: Athena in Greece, Minerva among the Romans, Neith or Nith or Nit among the Egyptians,Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) is an Egyptian deity belonging to the religion of ancient Egypt. She was the patroness of the city of Sais in Egypt, the city in which the Egyptian priest known as Sonchis of Sais revealed the history of Atlantis to Solon. In Irish mythology Neit (Néit, Nét, Neith) is a god of war. In my opinion, the civilization that may have transported the cult of Neith – Athena – Minerva throughout the Mediterranean Sea may have been the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean culture, and this explains why the Sardinian Corso Atlanteans brought the cult of the war goddess Neith also to Ireland. In Ireland, Neit was a god of war in Irish mythology. She was one of the Tuatha Dé Dannan, the last group of supernatural men to invade the Emerald Isle. The Tuatha Dé Dannan, largely considered the ancestral gods of the Irish people, are deities of Celtic culture 1 . There is no evidence to suggest that Egyptians ever visited Ireland or that there are any Egyptian finds in Ireland. However, the National Museum of Ireland has a collection of Egyptian finds received during the late 19th century from the excavation divisions of the Egypt Exploration Fund in London, including sites such as Hieraconpolis, Deir el-Bahri, Ehnasya, Oxyrhynchus, Tarkhan and Riqqa 2. At this point it is necessary to introduce other information, to clarify for scholars who want to understand better. Sardinia is full of symbols of the Goddess Tanit. In hieroglyphics, the word Tanit is written and read as Ta Neith, meaning “Land of Neith”. If everything I say is correct, Sardinia is in fact the land of the Goddess Neith, that is, Sardinia is the land of the Goddess Athena, of the Goddess Neith, of the Goddess Minerva. Athena is therefore Sardinian. Since these are very strong statements, it will take time for scholars to find further evidence that confirms my statements, which are too innovative to be believed immediately. Indeed, Sonchis of Sais speaks of the goddess Neith and Athena in the Platonic texts of Timaeus and Critias. In particular, when Sonchis begins to explain in the text of Timaeus, states that the Greeks venerate a goddess who in Greek is called Athena and who in Egyptian is called Neith; Sonchis continues by stating that the goddess Neith-Athena founded the city of Sais 8000 years before, i.e. in 8590 BC, and immediately afterwards states that the Goddess Athena founded the first Athens a thousand years before the city of Sais, in 9590 BC . These dates can be obtained scientifically because Solon’s journey to Egypt dates back to 590 BC, thus allowing us to obtain a series of certain dates to which the story refers.Athena is called Parthenos, which in Greek means “virgin”, because, like her fellow goddesses Artemis and Hestia, she was believed to remain perpetually virgin 1 . The name Parthenon comes from one of Athena’s many epithets: Athena Parthenos, meaning Virgin. Parthenon means “house of Parthenos”, which was the name given in the 5th century BC to the room (cell) inside the temple that housed the cult statue, and from the 4th century BC the entire building acquired the name of Parthenon 2 . I have not found any source that suggests a direct connection between the statue of Athena Parthenos and the Amazons’ habit of not marrying unless one has killed at least one man. However, the statue of Athena Parthenos, sculpted by Phidias, depicted an Amazon fallen onto Athena’s shield 1 . The Amazons were a nation of warriors in Greek mythology, and the subject of the Amazonomachy (battles between the ancient Greeks and the Amazons) was popular in ancient Greek and Roman art 1 . Furthermore, according to some sources, the Amazons were not favorably disposed towards the institution of marriage, but engaged in sexual activities to justify the continuity of their race, with men from neighboring clans, prisoners of war or random men they encountered 2 . Herodotus also stated that the Amazons had a marriage custom that prohibited a young woman from marrying until she had killed a man in battle 3 .
Athena is a goddess in Greek mythology, associated with wisdom, warfare, craftsmanship and the arts. According to Greek mythology, Athena was born from the head of Zeus, fully armed and ready for battle. There is no evidence to suggest that she Athena was originally from Sardinia or that she was worshiped as a Sardinian goddess.Furthermore, there is no evidence to suggest that Athena’s title was passed from woman to woman in the Sardinian matriarchal system. Minerva is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Athena and had similar roles in Roman mythology. Neith is an Egyptian goddess belonging to the ancient Egyptian religion and was the patroness of the city of Sais in Egypt. In Irish mythology, Neit was a god of war. There is no evidence to suggest that Neith was worshiped as a Sardinian or Irish goddess. Tanit was a Carthaginian goddess associated with fertility, love and pleasure. Many symbols associated with Tanit have been found in Sardinia, but there is no evidence to suggest that Tanit was originally from Sardinia or that she was worshiped as a Sardinian goddess.In reality, the information I have provided about the founding of the cities of Athens and Sais by Athena is not supported by reliable historical or archaeological sources, which is why if it turns out to be correct, it would demonstrate absolute genius, as far as to my current knowledge (19/08/2023) there is currently no other text that states these things; they therefore appear to be profoundly innovative and original ideas in the scientific panorama. Cicero also expressed himself on the identification of the goddess Neith with Athena, in his work entitled De natura deorum book 3, 23, 59. In book 3, 23, 59 of Cicero’s De Natura Deorum, an identification is made between the goddess Egyptian Neith and the Greek goddess Athena. Cicero writes: “And just as we venerate Minerva, so the Egyptians venerate Neith” (Ita ut Minervam nos,
- The toponymic part is so complex that I thought I’d dedicate a separate page to my speculations: https://www.atlantisfound.it/2023/02/25/3207-toponimi-sardi-attivano-per-funt-funtana-ossia -fountain/
- Among the purely speculative statements, I would like to point out that I am evaluating the hypothesis according to which the Troglodyte mentioned in some ancient texts could be the area of Olbia in present-day Sardinia. I have to double check all the sources after having searched and collected them in a single textual point. The city of Olbia was located in the Troglodyte: until now it was thought to be a place on the Red Sea; the Troglodytes were a people who “lived in holes”. Now present-day Sardinia is full of testimonies of “men who lived in natural holes”, i.e. in caves: we have remains in the rock shelter of Sirri in Carbonia, analyzed among others by Professor Carlo Lugliè; we have the remains found in the Lanaittu cave; I have to gather all the other scientific evidence to try to prove these claims. Furthermore, I need to test the hypothesis that there is a correlation in the names of Olbia and Sparta, but for the moment I am not able to provide more details.
- The Sardinian Corsican Atlantean paradigm theorized by me with this website and some others also states that the Latin-Falisque languages are of Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean derivation. The Latin-Falisque languages, also known as Veneto-Latin or Western Italic languages, are a group of Indo-European languages historically attested in Lazio, Veneto and Sicily 1 . Latin and therefore all Neo-Latin languages 1 also belong to this group . The Latin-Falisque languages include the Faliscan language, spoken in the area around Falerii Veteres (modern Civita Castellana) north of the city of Rome, the Latin language, spoken in central-western Italy, the Venetic language, spoken in Italy north-eastern by the Venetians (there is no consensus on its classification), and the Sicilian language, spoken in eastern Sicily by the Siculi (there is no consensus on its classification) 1I have presented a wide range of hypotheses and speculative connections between deities, toponymy, mythologies and different cultures, however it is important to emphasize that many of the claims I have made are still largely based on speculation and have not yet found solid support in academic research or in historical and archaeological sources. The connections between different deities and cultures can be interesting to explore, but it is crucial to maintain a critical perspective and base claims on concrete evidence and rigorous analysis. Interpretations of names and myths can vary greatly and there are often several explanations for the similarities one might find. The etymology of names, cultural and linguistic links are complex and require rigorous philological and historical analysis to be correctly understood. Scholars work to make connections based on reliable evidence and scientific methods, and it is important to respect these standards when formulating hypotheses. It should be remembered that the Goddess Athena, like many other deities, has a complex history and mythology that has been subject to interpretation by different cultures over the centuries. While some of my hypotheses may prove interesting or suggestive, it is important to take into account the lack of definitive evidence and rigorous scientific approach when exploring these topics. The academic community requires a series of convincing evidence before accepting new theories and connections,
- I detected an error in the date of the sinking of Atlantis in my own initial hypothesis. 9600 BC is the date of foundation of the first Athens, the one spoken of in Timaeus and Critias, Plato’s famous works. Therefore the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean island cannot have sunk in 9600 BC, because Athens had just been founded, while Sais was founded by Athena, according to what was said by Sonchis of Sais, around 8600 BC. Athens had particular laws, which were later borrowed from the Egyptian legislation of Sais, for example the division into social classes, shepherds, soldiers, priests… Athens became wonderful and capable of extraordinary things, but at a certain point an external power, in The Atlantic Ocean, i.e. in the Sea of Sardinia, attempts to invade the sea on this side of the Pillars of Carloforte now known as the Pillars of Hercules. The date of the invasion, however, is not written: This is the trauma, the serious problem. At this moment we have no clear idea of what date Sonchis is talking to Solon. During the clash between Athens and Atlantis, a submergence phenomenon occurs, during which Sardinian-Corsican Atlantis is partially submerged and the entire Greek army sinks under the sea. Therefore, given that Athens was founded around 9600 BC, given that it became very powerful and extraordinary and capable of incredible feats, it is possible that thousands of years may have passed: it is this very long time that may have made it exceptional: enormous capabilities, very long times prolonged for millennia which may have perfected and refined culture and technique. However, we have the testimony of the Temple of Medinet Abu where it is said that the “Nun came out of his bed”, “The Ocean came out of his bed”: it could really be this, perhaps the episode described by Sonchis to Solon. In this case, the date of submergence of the Sardinian-Corsican paleocoasts would be around 1200 BC and not in 9600.
- The Stele of Nora is an ancient Phoenician inscription found at Nora on the south coast of Sardinia in 1773. Although it was not discovered in its primary context, it has been dated by paleographic methods to the late 9th century to early 8th century BC and it is still considered the oldest Phoenician inscription found anywhere outside the Levant 1 . It is preserved at the National Archaeological Museum of Cagliari and is considered particularly notable due to its reference to the name Sardinia in Phoenician 1. On the other hand, Orichalcum is a metal mentioned in several ancient writings, including the story of Atlantis in Plato’s Critias. Within the dialogue, Critias (460-403 BC) says that orichalcum had been considered second only to gold in value and had been found and mined in many parts of Atlantis in ancient times, but that by the time of Critias himself , Orichalcum was known only by name 2There is no concrete evidence to suggest a direct link between the Stele of Nora and the Stele of Orichalcum located in the center of the island of Atlantis. However, it is possible to hypothesize that the Stele of Nora could be one of the Atlantean-style stelae, since it is currently the oldest stele in the entire current Mediterranean Sea; I have already shown how in ancient times the sea around Sardinia and Corsica was called the Atlantic Ocean. This is just a hypothesis and further research is needed to confirm any link between the two steles. The Stele of Orichalcum located at the center of the temple of Poseidon in Atlantis is an element of the tale of Atlantis described by Plato in his dialogues Timaeus and Critias.According to the story, the stele was engraved with laws that regulated relationships between the inhabitants of the island 1 . However, since Atlantis is considered a legend and there is no archaeological evidence of its existence, there is no concrete information about the Orichalcum stele or the temple of Poseidon in Atlantis.
- 03/08/2023: I am starting to seriously evaluate the hypothesis that the theft of the Golden Fleece was linked to the theft of sea byssus from Sant’Antioco and its province; now that the Garden of the Hesperides is located in Frutti d’Oro di Capoterra; now that Lake Tritonide is the sum of the lakes that lie between Cagliari and Capoterra; now that the Atlas Mountains are the Sulcis Mountains, everything seems to suggest that the Greeks had heard of the importance of sea byssus for the Sardinians: in fact it is so precious that it cannot be bought with money, it can only be donated. If this was the case millennia ago, then it is possible that the Greeks understood its incredible preciousness and decided to steal the precious Sardinian fabric. This theft would later be mythologized as the Theft of the Golden Fleece. At the moment I am still in the analysis phase of this hypothesis; It seems very plausible to me, but evidence is needed for a possible demonstration. It may be impossible to prove that the golden fleece was a Sardinian sea byssus fabric from Sant’Antioco or the province, however trying is a worthy undertaking. Furthermore, it would bring the mythical tale back to the level of reality. New discovery: today I found the following source online:
“THE GOLDEN FLEECE? It was the BYSUS!” Shardana the Sea Peoples (Leonardo Melis). Accessed August 3, 2023. http://shardanaleo.blogspot.com/2013/09/il-vello-doro-era-il-bisso.html .
which confirms to me that, if I haven’t misunderstood, about a decade ago the very kind Leonardo Melis had the same intuition as me, at least 10 years before me. Incredible. The date of the article is Sunday 29 September 2013, so I had this intuition almost 10 years later. The only difference is that I am providing a disproportionate amount of information to support this, and they all converge towards the confirmation of this hypothesis, which, stated alone, might have seemed impossible. If the hypothesis is correct, if I am not mistaken, it should follow that Colchis was the area of Carloforte, Sant’Antioco, and who knows, perhaps up to Gonnesa, Bacu Abis etc. Now, the next job will be to take up all the texts that mention Colchis and study them one by one until we find information that confirms or denies what is stated here and what was said by the Dear Leonardo Melis before me. Among the ancient texts that speak of Colchis, we can mention the works of Apollonius Rhodes, who in his epic poem “The Argonautics” narrates the story of the Argonauts’ expedition in search of the Golden Fleece. Hesiod, in his “Theogony”, also mentions Colchis as the place where the garden of the Hesperides was located, guarded by the dragon Ladon. Furthermore, authors such as Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus provide information on the geography and history of Colchis in their historical and geographical works. So there is a sort of logical coherence: Among the ancient texts that speak of Colchis, we can mention the works of Apollonius Rhodes, who in his epic poem “The Argonautics” narrates the story of the Argonauts’ expedition in search of the Golden Fleece. Hesiod, in his “Theogony”, also mentions Colchis as the place where the garden of the Hesperides was located, guarded by the dragon Ladon. Furthermore, authors such as Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus provide information on the geography and history of Colchis in their historical and geographical works. So there is a sort of logical coherence: Among the ancient texts that speak of Colchis, we can mention the works of Apollonius Rhodes, who in his epic poem “The Argonautics” narrates the story of the Argonauts’ expedition in search of the Golden Fleece. Hesiod, in his “Theogony”, also mentions Colchis as the place where the garden of the Hesperides was located, guarded by the dragon Ladon. Furthermore, authors such as Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus provide information on the geography and history of Colchis in their historical and geographical works. So there is a sort of logical coherence: mentions Colchis as the location of the garden of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon. Furthermore, authors such as Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus provide information on the geography and history of Colchis in their historical and geographical works. So there is a sort of logical coherence: mentions Colchis as the location of the garden of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon. Furthermore, authors such as Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus provide information on the geography and history of Colchis in their historical and geographical works. So there is a sort of logical coherence:if in Hesiod and Apollonius of Rhodes Colchis is the name of present-day Southern Sardinia, the whole discussion becomes coherent and sensible again . However, if all this is true, then it will be necessary to recreate the ancient maps again and reposition the geographical names correctly , to allow new scholars and researchers to avoid making the same mistakes we have made up until today.
- Coastal navigation: let’s start from the data. The Uluburun shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dating back to the late 14th century BC 1 . It was discovered near the eastern coast of Uluburun (Great Cape), Turkey, in the Mediterranean Sea. The wreck was discovered in the summer of 1982 by Mehmed Çakir, a local diver from Yalıkavak, a village near Bodrum 1. The navigation of the Uluburun wreck, according to my current state of knowledge, is coastal. This means that with great probability in the 14th century BC people sailed keeping the coasts in sight, in order to save themselves by swimming in the event of the sinking of the naval vessel. Probably, while he was sailing by sight in North Africa, a storm may have pushed a ship of Greek sailors off course, who ended up beyond the Atlantic Ocean, as they then called the Sea of Sardinia and Corsica, according to my theory. Having ended up in what we now call the Gulf of Cagliari, they saw an immense large lake which they called Tritonide, probably after the first contacts with the indigenous people (indigenous means local inhabitants, i.e. the ancient Sardinians). There is also a toponymic correspondence with the Garden of the Hesperides and Golden Fruits of Capoterra, as already explained elsewhere in this text. There is therefore a strong probability that the Faraglioni of Carloforte marked the limit beyond which one could not go because beyond that one would go into the open sea without the possibility of visible coastal navigation. This is why in my opinion that was the limit of the world known by the ancient Greeks, at least in the 14th century BC. So in my opinion the known limit was not the Strait of Gibraltar, but the Pillars of Hercules of Carloforte in Sardinia as defined by Professor Giorgio Saba. By moving the Pillars of Hercules it is possible to understand what Sonchis of Sais was stating in his speeches to Solon; it is possible to macro-localize the toponymic position of the Garden of the Hesperides; you can find Atlantis and the Atlas Mountains. It is possible to locate what Lake Tritonide was and its position: with my general theory it is possible to understand why various authors talk about North Africa: Cagliari is REALLY positioned north of Africa, only that it is separated by a short stretch of sea . But until now, scholars have interpreted the phrase North Africa literally, mistakenly believing that they were talking about the northernmost part of the African territory, i.e. present-day Tunisia or Libya. All the Mycenaean finds in our possession show archaeologically and scientifically the contacts between the Mycenaean Greek populations and southern Sardinia, empirically confirming, at least on a theoretical level, what I stated. Until now, the scientific paradigm has been to hypothesize the Pillars of Hercules in Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean beyond, but this paradigm appears to be inaccurate: the Pillars ended up in Gibraltar only many centuries or millennia later. Before this, the true and most ancient Pillars of Hercules were located in what today we call Faraglione Antiche Colonne di Carloforte, between the islands of Carloforte and Sant’Antioco. Professor Giorgio Saba’s discovery is extraordinary, breathtaking. This new, precious information puts Sardinia, and consequently the Sardinian-Corsican geological block, at the extreme western limit of the ancient Greek and Mycenaean world. This paradigm shift leads us to imagine the first linguistic and cultural exchanges between these peoples, whereby linguistics is fully affected by the consequences of the statements made here: the ancient Mycenaean and Sardinian languages mixed, with contaminations deriving from the prehistoric contacts between these populations. Therefore it is necessary to restore the dignity of study to the Sardinian languages and dialects, to Sardinian culture in general, which seems to have been ignored or downgraded for a long time, deprived of its real importance for the ancient world. In Italy we study ancient and modern Greek, ancient, classical and medieval Latin at university, but no one seems interested in studying languages, Sardinian dialects neither ancient nor modern, it’s as if we were ashamed: Why? Why have we caused these ancient and modern languages, dialects and cultures to lose the dignity of teaching? The Sardinians themselves are ashamed of their language, and when they use it it almost seems as if they are “contaminating” the Italian language. This absolutely needs to change. We must put Sardinia and the Sardinian-Corsican block back in its place in antiquity and history, in geography and linguistics, in the history of trade and cultures and tourism. This is what real scientists would do. However, the problem becomes more complicated: for now we have in fact been talking about Sardinian languages and dialects, and we need to clarify; from the fourth book of Herodotus’ Histories, if we interpret the current province of Cagliari as Libya, we deduce that the south of current Sardinia was a melting pot of peoples and cultures, not a single identity:
- At this point I would like to underline an intuition that I had and which could have interesting implications. At the moment it is only a hypothesis without certain foundation, purely speculative. I was struck by the homonymy between the Pyramid of Giza and the Gizanti people. After having already shown in these texts the strange proximity between ancient Egypt and the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean peoples, I would not be surprised to discover or, who knows, perhaps demonstrate, later, a possible relationship between the Gizanti people of Colchis in Sardinia and the construction of the pyramid of Giza. It is an abstract hypothesis, completely out of the blue, but it can be an intriguing new avenue of study and creative research, even if it turns out to be totally incorrect and unfounded.
- Geocriticism is a method of literary analysis and literary theory that incorporates the study of geographic space. Using this method, we can examine how the theories of the writer Luigi Usai on the discovery of Atlantis, the Garden of the Hesperides, Lake Tritonide, the Amazons of Myrina relate to geographical space, in particular to ancient geographical space and to the new reintegration of Sardinia and its islands within ancient mapping systems. If what is stated on this site and in the books published by Luigi Usai, then it will be necessary to create ancient cartography again, to facilitate the work of learning about antiquity for the new generations of scholars, historians, geographers, philologists, philosophers, geologists and so on. . According to Luigi Usai, the Pillars of Hercules are located in Carloforte as stated in Giorgio Saba’s book, near the island of San Pietro, in Sardinia. Giorgio Saba’s discovery offers us a new perspective on the geography of Sardinia and its relationship with ancient mythology. Furthermore, Luigi Usai proposed that Sulcis is the capital of Atlantis and that Atlantis is the partially submerged Sardinian-Corsican geological block. These theories offer us a new understanding of the geography of Sardinia and Corsica and their relationship with ancient history. Geocriticism allows us to examine how these theories relate to geographic space and how this impacts our understanding of ancient history. For example, we can examine how the location of the Pillars of Hercules in Carloforte influences our understanding of ancient mythology and the geography of Sardinia. Furthermore, we can examine how Luigi Usai’s theory of Atlantis and Sulcis influences our understanding of the geography of Sardinia and Corsica and their relationship to ancient history.
- Tamil Nadu Jallikattu: I’m starting to think that this rite could be of Sardinian Corsican Atlantean derivation as well as the bullfight and games with the bulls of the Cretans. This hypothesis must be studied in depth for possible consequences, for example of a linguistic nature.
- Different cultures around the world have developed practices and rituals involving bulls or other large animals. Here are some of these practices that could have superficial similarities with the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean bullfighting and which in my opinion could have very remote common origins in the Sardinian-Corsican culture:
- Course camarguaise (France): This is a form of traditional bullfighting in the Camargue region of southern France. Unlike Spanish bullfighting, the objective is not to kill the bull. Rather, raseteurs attempt to remove a ribbon or rosette from the bull’s horns using only one hand.
- Bous al mar (Spain): In Denia, in the Valencia region of Spain, an event called “Bous al mar” (Bulls at the sea) is held. The bulls are raced along the streets to a pier, where spectators try to knock them into the sea, while trying to avoid being pushed into the water by the bull.
- Rodeo (United States and Canada): Although the roots of rodeo are different from bullfighting practices, it shares the element of men seeking to dominate or display skill against a powerful animal. Events include bull riding, bronchi (wild horse) riding, and lassoing.
- Zampanzar (Spain): During the Saint Sebastian festivities in some parts of Spain, a bull with a set of rockets tied to its horns is released into the streets. Spectators try to run and get close to the bull without being hit by the rockets.
- Coleo (Venezuela and Colombia): Although it involves horses rather than bulls, Coleo is a sport in which riders try to take down a bull or cow by pulling it by the tail.
- Buffalo Racing (India and Thailand): In coastal regions of India, such as Karnataka, and in Thailand, buffalo racing is traditional. Although it does not directly involve the fight between man and animal, it shows a display of strength and speed between the animals, often with men trying to control them during the contest.
- Cretan Bullfighting: The oldest depictions of bull games are found in the Minoan art of ancient Crete (circa 2000-1400 BC). They show young athletes jumping on the backs of bulls or doing acrobatics. It is unclear whether these were religious rites, sporting activities, or both. There is no indication that bulls were killed in these events.
- Bullfighting: Spanish bullfighting is a form of bullfighting in which a bullfighter, or matador, fights a bull in a series of stages culminating in the killing of the bull. It has ancient origins and can be traced back to ancient Rome, but the modern form has medieval origins. It has a deep cultural and ritual connection in Spain and other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, but is also controversial due to animal rights issues.
- Jallikattu: Jallikattu has roots in the harvest celebration of Pongal in Tamil Nadu. It’s not a bull-killing sport; instead, the goal is to tame the bull or hang on to it. However, it has sparked controversy and debate over animal rights in India, leading to temporary regulations and bans.
- Tōgyū , also known as ushi-zumo or Bull sumo, is a spectacular sport originating from the Ryukyu Islands of Japan (Okinawa Prefecture and the Amami Islands of Kagoshima Prefecture). It also takes place in other regions of Japan, such as the prefectures of Iwate, Niigata, Shimane and Ehime 1. Unlike the Spanish or Portuguese bullfight, where the matches are between a bull and a human, in Tōgyū the matches are between two bulls they try to make the other back down. Each bull has a trainer who helps keep the bulls locked in conflict and encourages their bull to win. The match ends when one of the bulls gets tired and withdraws, losing match 1 .Tōgyū began at least as early as the 12th century, with farmers pitting bulls against each other as an entertaining sport 1 . During matches, bulls lock horns and try to force the other to give up ground 1 .
- A hypothesis that at the moment I am not yet able to elaborate better is the following: the languages hitherto called Indo-European could actually be Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean languages. It is possible that the Sardinian-Corsicans, in the remote past, may have also reached India, creating some ethnic groups that remained there; given the practice of Jallikattu and for other reasons that I cannot list for now, I hypothesize that some Indian ethnic groups, for example the Tamils, are of Sardinian-Corsican origin. They would therefore have linguistic and ethnocultural points in common. This, however, is an exclusively theoretical-speculative hypothesis which does not yet have solid foundations. But I want to point it out, in case others notice and think they are the first to have thought of it.
- The Sardinian-Corsican geological block has been submerged for approximately 11,600 years due to the Meltwater Pulse, i.e. the waves of ice melt water after the last glaciation 1 .
- The Sardinian-Corsican geological block has a north-south orientation and was home to the dwarf elephant species (Mammuthus lamarmorae), as described by Plato 1 .
- The toponymy of Sulcis recalls the sources of hot and cold water placed by Poseidon on the island of Atlantis: there are places such as Acquacadda, S’Acqua Callenti de Basciu and de Susu, Acqua Callentis, Zinnigas and Terresoli 1 2 .
- Solon listened to the story of Atlantis in the Egyptian city of Sais: but Sais is also the name of a hamlet near Narcao in Sulcis and a Sardinian surname 1 2 .
- The Villanovan civilization presents Atlantean symbols such as concentric circles and false doors similar to the Sardinian ones; furthermore, the genome of the Corsican population has elements in common with that of central Italy 1 2 .
- The sinking of the island of Atlantis was also due to the seismic anomaly caused by the accommodation following the lateral slab roll-back 3 .
- Atlantis had a port that also had a canal : the Canal Port is still present in Cagliari in Sardinia .
- The capital of Atlantis would be located near Teulada in present-day Sardinia . And in fact an American Military Base has been placed there and all activities within it are covered by State Secret; you can read about this state secret in various online articles, in particular those linked to Mauro Pili:
- The submerged city of Athens from 9600 BC was found by Luigi Usai in the Sicily Malta platform.
- Atlantis had a circular shape with concentric channels that connected the sea to the central city; this form is found in the three-dimensional backdrops of the Sardinian-Corsican block.
- Atlantis was rich in precious metals such as gold, silver and orichalcum; these metals are also present in the Sardinian-Corsican territory.
- The archaeological evidence has never been found because it has never been looked for: this is because the Sardinian academic and archaeological world, in general, has always considered the discussions on Atlantis as Plato’s fable tales with literary, political or philosophical intentions. Therefore, no one has carried out stratigraphic archaeological excavations in Sardinia that reached 9600 BC.
- No one to this day has yet discovered the size of Libya and Asia in 9600 BC; no one, to this day, even has any idea what these words represented, before the sinking of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean blockade in about 9600 BC; however, it is possible to reason in the opposite way, and consequently determine that Libya and Asia were in 9600 BC two geographical realities with dimensions smaller than those of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block currently submerged under the Mediterranean.
- Underwater bathymetric anomalies have been detected throughout the present-day Mediterranean Sea. In particular, on the Sicily-Malta carbonate continental shelf, geometric shapes have been detected that suggest at least two clear possibilities: the first that they are underwater artefacts, that is, in the jargon of experts, apparently anthropic shapes that derive from the poor processing of bathymetric data through the appropriate software currently in use; the second, that they are remains of an anthropic nature, in particular of some form of prehistoric inhabited center of which the memory has been lost. Various books have currently been published by the writer Doctor Luigi Usai regarding this information, which still remains under scrutiny by the Scientific Community.
- Professor Salvatore Dedola states in the video on the page
at minute 3:40 that Sardinia is the victim of a “conventio ad excludendum”. It is a Latin phrase which means “agreement to exclude” and refers to an explicit agreement or tacit understanding between some social, economic or political parties, which has as its aim the exclusion of a specific third party from certain forms of alliance , participation or collaboration 1 . At this point I want to underline that I fully agree with what Professor Dedola stated; I mentioned him because I don’t want to take credit for a statement he made, which I fully agree with.
- Luigi Usai stated in one of his books that the Villanovan civilization was a Sardinian-Corsican migration to Italy. And in fact a Nuragic bronze was found just a few days ago in Lake Bolsena, belonging to the Villanovan civilization, and it is the only one found inside a Villanovan house, currently submerged under Lake Bolsena.
- Among the geological evidence, the mud that surrounded the island of Sardinia-Corsican Atlantis was caused by the sea undertow on the coasts, which stripped the island of the soil of the original paleocoasts inhabited by the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlanteans. The Atlantean paleocoasts are today called by the scientific world the “Sardinian-Corsican continental shelf”.
- In the “Su Carroppu” rock shelter in Sirri, Sardinia, Mesolithic inhabitants were found, who according to my theory are most likely Atlanteans. In fact, two out of three individuals have allowed the analysis of their DNA, which is almost totally different from that of the Neolithic people who colonized the island approximately three thousand years later, i.e. approximately 3000 years after the sinking of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block -Atlantean. Consequently, a great deal of information can be derived from this discovery: for example, the Atlanteans inhabited the paleocoasts of the Sardinian block; they had different DNA; they preyed on marine resources in particular, which is in keeping with the fact that these people worshiped Poseidon, the “God of the Sea”.
- The discovery of the statue of Atlas from the Olympeion would indirectly confirm that around the 5th or 4th century BC the Sardinian Atlantean figure of Atlas was still highly venerated in Sicily. The fact that it is called “Telamone” in Italian shows how it seems that archaeologists, even if unconsciously and involuntarily, do everything possible to erase the Atlantean terminology: in fact abroad it is called Atlas in the main world newspaper articles who talk about it. Furthermore, the statue of Atlas is of immense size, which suggests that he was a much loved, venerated and respected figure.
- The Sardinian-Corsican Atlanteans, being a seafaring people, may have spread some stone-working techniques such as Clactonian and Tayatian along the Atlantic coasts of Europe during their explorations and migrations. This would explain the presence of similar megalithic structures in very distant places. The hypothesis that the Sardinian-Corsican Atlanteans, a people of skilled navigators and seafarers, spread stone working techniques such as the Clactonian and Tayacian along the Atlantic coasts of Europe during their explorations and migrations is fascinating and opens up different study perspectives. This theory suggests that the knowledge and skills developed by this adventurous population may have had a lasting impact on the construction of megalithic structures in distant places. The Clactonian and Tayacian are considered two phases of the Lower Paleolithic, characterized by the use of chipped stones and the production of rough stone tools. If the Sardinian-Corsican Atlanteans had been able to spread these techniques along the Atlantic coasts, they could have directly influenced the creation of megalithic monuments such as dolmens, menhirs and megalithic complexes in different places. This would explain the similarity in stone-working techniques and architectural styles between different geographic regions. Their advanced navigation skills would have made them capable of moving along marine trade routes and colonizing new lands along the Atlantic coasts of Europe. During these journeys of exploration and migration, they may have spread their stone-working skills, paving the way for the construction of similar megalithic structures by local populations. The presence of similar megalithic structures in distant places could be the result of this exchange of knowledge and skills between Sardinians. Atlantean courses and local communities along the Atlantic coasts. This phenomenon could also explain why we sometimes see similarities in the names of megalithic sites in different places, such as Karnak and Carnac, which could be a reflection of the spread of the culture and language of the Sardinian-Corsican Atlanteans. This theory adds an interesting element to our understanding of the diffusion of technologies and cultures in the ancient world.The Clactonian is a phase of the Lower Paleolithic, a prehistoric period characterized by the use of chipped stone tools and a material culture associated with nomadic hunter-gatherer groups. This phase takes its name from the location of Clacton-on-Sea in Essex, England, where the first finds belonging to this archaeological tradition were discovered. The Clactonianit is dated to approximately 400,000-300,000 years ago and represents one of the earliest expressions of the intentional use of chipped stones for the production of tools and instruments. This phase is part of what archaeologists call the “chipped lithoid industry,” in which stones were deliberately chipped and worked into tools useful for various purposes, such as cutting, scraping, and drilling. Clactonian tools include spearheads, scrapers, and other sharp tools. The main characteristics of Clactonian tools include rough workmanship, where stones were chipped to create sharp edges without particularly careful finishing. This rough workmanship may have been the result of the use of tools for specific tasks and the need to replace them frequently.The Clactonian cultureit has been associated with nomadic human groups who depended on hunting, fishing and gathering food resources in coastal areas and surrounding environments. Although there is still ongoing research and discussion about the geographic scope and spread of this culture, archaeological evidence indicates that Clactonian tools were found in several parts of Europe, especially along the Atlantic coasts. The Clactonian represents a primordial phase of the evolution of human technology, where chipped stone tools were used purposefully to perform daily tasks and survive in the surrounding environment. This phase laid the foundation for the subsequent development of complex stone tool industries throughout the Lower Paleolithic. The Tayacianis another important phase of the Lower Paleolithic, located chronologically after the Clactonian. It takes its name from the archaeological site of Le Moustier, located in Tayac in France, where finds belonging to this archaeological tradition have been identified. The Tayacian is dated to approximately 300,000-200,000 years ago and is considered a continuation and evolution of technical traditions and cultural events that began with the Clactonian. At this stage, humans continued to use chipped stone tools, but some significant modifications and developments occurred in stone processing and the tools produced. One of the defining characteristics of the Tayacianit is the introduction of a more refined processing of the stones. Tayacian tools are often associated with greater precision in shaping and sharpening tool edges, suggesting improved technical skills in the art of stoneworking. Tools from this phase include spearheads, scrapers, blades, and other tools, often made using several stages of chipping to achieve specific shapes and functionality. One of the significant discoveries associated with the Tayacianis the use of stone tools made using the Levallois technique, a controlled chipping technique that allows stone chips of a specific and predefined shape to be obtained. This technique represents a step forward in humans’ understanding and mastery of stoneworking. Culturally, the Tayacianrepresents a stage in the evolution of prehistoric societies, in which technology and technical skills gradually improved. The spread of the Tayacian was identified in several parts of Europe, demonstrating that this phase had a wider geographic scope than its predecessor, the Clactonian. In summary, the Tayacian is a key phase in the path of development of human technology during the Lower Paleolithic. This phase saw improvements in stonework and the art of controlled chipping, paving the way for further technological and cultural developments in the later phases of the Paleolithic.
- The similar names of some sites, such as Karnak and Carnac, could be an echo of the cultural domination and spread of the language of the Sardinian-Corsican Atlanteans in a very ancient era. Many place names have prehistoric origins.
- The construction of megalithic structures required social organization and the dissemination of specialized knowledge. The Sardinian-Corsican Atlanteans may have transmitted this knowledge to local populations during their explorations, allowing the construction of similar monuments throughout Europe.
- Plato placed Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean. The Sardinian-Corsican Atlanteans, being an insular people, may have actually dominated much of the trade routes and cultural exchanges in the prehistoric Atlantic, as Timaeus and Critias suggest.
- Some important megalithic sites, such as Stonehenge, may have been influenced, or even built, by the Sardinian-Corsican Atlanteans, given their presumed cultural and maritime influence on Western Europe: in fact, before the Stonehenge megalithism was created it was built in the center of current Sardinia the megalithism of Pranu Mattedu.
- In Europe there are many cases of alloglossia. In my opinion, several of these alloglossies, such as the Gallo-Italic dialect variants in Sicily and Piedmont, Veneto, Romagna and Tuscany, can be attributed to linguistic remains of the Mesolithic and Neolithic Sardinian-Corsican colonization throughout Europe, an Atlantean colonization which the priest of Sais in Egypt in Solon, in the Platonic texts of Timaeus and Critias.
- A further step in the direction of the study of the territory has been made in recent days with the declaration made public by the article below by the Unione Sarda, Sardinia’s newspaper:
- A load of orichalcum was found in the seas of Sicily, right near the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean geological block : this discovery is described in numerous newspaper articles that have traveled around the world: here is a short list, which you can double-check online and on search engines
https://www.famedisud.it/dal-mare-di-gela-riemerge-loricalco-il-leggendario-metallo-di-atlantide-un-tesoro-di-26-secoli-fa/ https://mondointasca.it/2015/01/07/oricalco-il-misterioso-metallo-di-atlantide-ritrovato-a-gela/#:~:text=Come%20il%20tempo%20e%20la,secolo% 20a.C.%2C%202600%20anni%20fa.https://culturattualita.wordpress.com/2015/01/14/oricalco-legendario-metallo-di-atlantide-trovato-al-largo-della-sicilia/https://caltanissetta.gds.it/video/cultura/2015/03/02/nel-mare-di-gela-lingotti-di-2600-anni-fa-video-c99e3503-14fc-4e1e-b888-334d14fa3da1/
- Reliability of the maps used by Dr. Luigi Usai : For the creation of most of the geographical and bathymetric maps, Luigi Usai made use of the open European system called Emodnet. EMODnet Map Viewer is a reliable online tool that allows you to view and analyze marine data collected by the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) 1 . With this tool, users can access a wide range of marine data, including information on marine regions, data on EMODnet products and the latest news on EMODnet 2 . Therefore the maps and maps used are incredibly precise and reliable.
- Sardinia, with its rugged geography and its deep caves, has always aroused the interest of archaeologists and historians. The presence of speleological complexes such as the Is Zuddas Caves in Sulcis and many others scattered across the island suggests that these places may have offered refuge and home to human groups in antiquity. Herodotus, the famous Greek historian, speaks of the Troglodytes, a well-known people to live not in built homes, but in “ravines” or natural caves. The name “Troglodytes” literally means “hole dwellers”. For about 2600 years Herodotus’ descriptions were believed to refer to peoples located in regions far from Sardinia; currently, in light of the new information that has emerged from the analyzes of this website, it is plausible to hypothesize that on the island of Sardinia there were ethnic groups with similar habits or even that Sardinia was the place from which the Troglodyte people originated and then spread to the rest of the world. On a speculative level, it is even possible to make a comparison with the people who inhabited the Qumran Caves. This theory finds further foundation in the numerous archaeological discoveries made in different areas of Sardinia. The Pirosu Cave of Su Benatzu, for example, has revealed traces of human settlements. Similarly, the Lanaittu cave offered tangible evidence of human presence, as did the rock shelter of Su Carroppu di Sirri, in the province of Carbonia, where remains dating back to 11,000 years ago were discovered. Neptune’s Caves in Alghero, famous for their extraordinary beauty, they have also revealed signs of human presence in prehistoric times. It should be underlined that life in caves, although present, does not necessarily imply a primitive life or one devoid of cultural evolution. Often, caves were used as temporary shelters or sacred places, rather than as permanent homes. Furthermore, in a geographical context such as that of Sardinia, characterized by a mountainous territory and an at times severe climate, the caves could offer protection and security. In conclusion, without drawing definitive conclusions, the numerous findings and the geographical nature of Sardinia indicate that cave life may have been a significant part of the island’s prehistoric history. As always,
- New speculative hypotheses on the Lotophagi people and on Polyphemus: today’s date 14 August 2023. For months now I have been starting to think that the land of the Lotus Eaters is located in Sardinia, and I am evaluating the hypothesis that the lotus fruit was actually something like the Sardinian myrtle. In fact, the Lotus Eaters were a hospitable people, and they offered the fruit of the lotus (perhaps myrtle) to the people they hosted. The people hosted therefore forgot everything because the myrtle made them drunk, and the jovial and hospitable climate induced them to stay as guests and “forget their homeland and family”. Regarding the possibility of the presence of Polyphemus or the myth of Polyphemus in Sardinia, there are many sources that could lead a Sardinian to confirm the hypothesis: in fact in Sardinian archeology there are many very ancient structures which are called in the Sardinian language: the house of the ogre (“Sa Domu ‘e S’Orcu” in the Sardinian language). It is probable that these structures are linked to the myths of the orcs or the presence of mythological figures such as those of Polyphemus: they were probably very ancient tales to scare travelers or they could have been tales that were told to prevent anyone from exploring and learning about areas Sardinian geographical areas covered by secrets of various kinds, for example commercial or mining: for example, in order not to reveal that in an area there was a mine very rich in a certain mineral, they could invent stories to keep people away from that place.
- Possible archaeological misdirections for scholars : it is possible to analyze this article to note the following fact: archaeologists often “attribute” a temple to a deity, for a thousand reasons. After decades and decades that a temple has been attributed to a Goddess, for example the Goddess Hera – Juno, no one would dream of questioning her attribution anymore. Something extraordinary must happen, such as the discovery of a head of the goddess Athena: then everything is called into question, and it is estimated that temple D in the Valley of the Temples of Akragas (in ancient Greek: Ἀκράγας), hitherto attributedto the Greek goddess Hera (Juno for the Romans) is actually a temple of the goddess Athena. Now we must multiply this fact by hundreds and hundreds of attributions that have been made to date, completely excluding the possibility of Sardinian-Corsican influence in the Mediterranean. Having done this, we can begin to mentally tune into another wavelength, which allows us to understand that the Sardinian-Corsican civilization has been snubbed, avoided, forgotten, discarded for millennia, despite the thousands and thousands of nuraghes, wells sacred buildings, giants’ tombs, domus de janas, dolmens, menhirs, which are typical of ancient Corsican Sardinian architecture and landscape and still visible to the public today, while many other works lie underground yet to be excavated.
- Regarding the meaning of Hyperborea, I refer readers to study what is stated in this text: https://linguasarda.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/HISTORIC-GRAMMAR-OF-SARDINIAN-LANGUAGE.pdf and I thank the extraordinary author.
- The Montezuma Cliff in Sardinia:
A ruler of the Aztecs was called Montezuma; the Aztecs claimed to have come from an island in the Atlantic Ocean. In Sardinia there is still a crag called Montezuma crag today. This may just be a coincidence, but it deserves to be investigated further.
Montezuma, also known as Moctezuma, or more correctly, Motecuhzoma II Xocoyotzin, meaning “Angry as a Lord,” was the last fully independent ruler of the Aztec Empire before the collapse of civilization following the Spanish conquest in early 16th century 1 . Montezuma II was born around 1466 and in 1502 was chosen to succeed his uncle Axayacatl 2 as the eighth tlatoani (emperor) . Under his reign, the Aztec empire reached its maximum expansion 3 . Montezuma II personally conducted many military campaigns and tried to consolidate the great territorial expansion of his predecessors, subjugating the territories that were still autonomous 2 . The Aztecs believed they came from a place called Aztlan, which translates as “place of gauze” or “place of whiteness.” However, it is not known for certain where Aztlan was located and whether it was an island, a mythical place, or a real region. Historians have speculated that it may have been located northwest of Mexico or in the southwest of the United States 1 . The migration from Aztlan to the Valley of Mexico is a recurring theme in Aztec stories and legends2 .
I have not found specific information on why the crag is called “Montezuma”. However, Montezuma is the name of a great Aztec emperor 1 . It could be that the crag was named in honor of him or for some other reason linked to his historical figure. The Montezuma crag is one of the new granite climbing areas in the Sette Fratelli massif near Cagliari in Sardinia 2 .
- 08/17/2023 From all my little research, I have the intuitive feeling that Samothrace is somehow linked to the Sardinian-Corsican geological block , but I still don’t understand why my subconscious is linking these two locations. I need to study a lot, to better understand what pushed my brain to connect these distant places. At the moment I only want to report this feeling of mine to my two or three occasional readers, whom I greet with great affection.
- Pareidolia is the brain’s instinctive and automatic tendency to find orderly structures and familiar shapes in disordered images 1 . This tendency manifests itself especially towards human figures and faces 1 . For example, you might see a human face in the moon or animals in the clouds. Pareidolia is a particular case of apophenia, which is the tendency to perceive connections and meanings between unrelated events 1. In my opinion, I made all these potential discoveries because my brain has good skills with apophenia. I somehow managed to connect all this information that apparently seems totally unrelated to each other. If I got it all wrong, then it must be admitted that I have an incredible imagination, to have managed to connect all these topics together.
- Herodotus, Histories, Chapter IV 181: Herodotus mentions a statue of Zeus with a ram’s head. There really are statues of Zeus with a ram’s head. One such statue is the marble head of Zeus Ammon, which is located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 1 . This powerful portrait of the god combines a classical Greek image of the bearded Zeus with the ram’s horns of the Egyptian Ammon, an attribute with which Alexander the Great was also sometimes depicted 1 . It may reflect a sculpture created in Egypt in the years following Alexander’s historic visit to Siwa 1 . I have to delve deeper to understand if in reality this head was Sardinian from Sulcis, as stated by Herodotus in the passage cited.
- Herodotus speaks of the city of Barce or Barcei, and in Sardinia there is the city of Burcei. Even if it were my interpretation error, I want to try to force Herodotus’ interpretation and analyze this variant. 08/18/2023 I believe that the city of Barce or Barcei was near Oristano, but for now I will force the interpretation on Burcei, to memorize all this data, which is new to me.
- Cult of Heracles in present-day Sardinia: was Hercules Sardinian?
The Pillars of Hercules were located in Carloforte , between the Island of San Pietro and the Island of Sant’Antioco; there was a port, currently submerged under the sea of Sulcis, which could contain up to 400 ships, dedicated to Hercules: Capo Malfatano, an extraordinary ancient port of 400 ships dedicated to Melqart
Hercules visits the Garden of the Hesperides, which was located in Frutti d’Oro di Capoterra, located between the Atlas Mountains today known as the Sulcis Mountains, and the Atlantic Ocean, today known as the Sardinia Sea or the Mediterranean;
little girl walks in Sassari and finds a statue of a bearded man, perhaps Hercules;
The statue of Heracles from Turris Libisonis (excavations 2009);
The Island of Hercules in Sardinia : According to Pliny the Elder in Naturalis historia (III, 7, 84), the name Herculis insula indicated not only Asinara, but also the nearby Isola Piana ; while instead Ptolemy (Geogr. III, 3, 8) indicated with this name only the island of Asinara, clearly distinguishing it from the Isola Piana, called “Diabate insula”, i.e. “island of passage” 1 .
I will collect here all the findings related to the myth of Hercules so as to be able to centralize the analysis in a single point. It has been stated in the past that Hercules is a Greek myth; then it was stated that Melqart is the Hercules of the Carthaginians; in short, Hercules is from the Greeks, Hercules is from the Carthaginians, Hercules can never be Sardinian, who knows why. There is something that evidently disturbs the scientific and archaeological-literary world. Ercole can’t be Sardinian, maybe it bothers someone. My hypothesis is that this “Hercules” was simply a Sardinian figure of enormous importance, for reasons that are not yet clear to me. This Hercules had been admired by the Greeks, by the Carthaginians, but for some reason the provenance or origin of this figure was hidden. More data and more evidence are needed.
It seems that Hercules was venerated in Olbia. According to some sources, the Church of San Paolo in Olbia was built on the ruins of a pagan temple from the Roman era, perhaps dedicated to Hercules 1 . Furthermore, there is a book entitled “Cult and images of Hercules in Olbia” written by Pietra Giovanna and D’Oriano Rubens which could provide further information on the cult of Hercules in the city 2 . Olbia’s Summer Carnival also included a re-enactment of the myth of Hercules, with floats reproducing the Temple of Hercules and his 12 Labors 3 . Thus, it seems that the cult of Hercules had an important role in the history and culture of Olbia.
- Further developments of the analysis: while browsing the web, I found the phrase ” Ercole Cabiro “. Fact: at Capo Malfatano in Sardinia, in Sulcis, there is a Port of Hercules ; at Frutti d’Oro in Sardinia, near Capoterra, there seems to be the Garden of the Hesperides ; If the Pillars of Hercules are really in Carloforte , it means that we have a very deep-rooted presence of mythology about Hercules in Southern Sardinia . What can Ercole Cabiro mean? Hercules Sulcitano? Ercole Campidanese? To analyze this information, you first need to understand who the Cabiri are.The Cabiri were a group of enigmatic deities of the underworld, probably of Phrygian or Thracian origin, and protectors of sailors who were later imported into the Greek rite, where they corresponded to the dwarf sons of the god Hephaestus, who forged metals in his forge of Lemnos together with the mother Cabeiro 1 . They were the object of a mystery cult and were venerated on the island of Samothrace as Great Gods in a mystery cult which had its center in the Sanctuary of the Great Gods and was closely connected to that of Hephaestus 1The cult of the Cabiri was one of the many mystery cults practiced in antiquity. These cults were characterized by esoteric rites reserved for small groups of initiates, who had the obligation to maintain secrecy regarding the rites and beliefs of the cult. The mystery rites often included sacred symbols, magical ceremonies, sacraments and purification rituals, and had the aim of transforming the life of the initiate by offering him a perspective of total liberation with respect to his existential problems 2. The enigmatic nature of the Cabiri divinities and the The darkness that looms over them has led modern writers to each write their own theory that often contrasts with the others. The origin and meaning of their name as well as their real origin or provenance remain uncertain 1. Staying on this line: Sardinians are often called “dwarves” because of their height; in certain parts of Sardinia, the Sardinians are on average very short. Hephaestus is Athena’s brother, and on this site I have shown the possible origin of Athena from Lake Tritonide in the province of Cagliari. This would imply that the blacksmith Hephaestus is also of Sardinian origins, a Blacksmith God because the Sardinians, with the mines of Sulcis, were perhaps the first blacksmiths in the world, and blacksmiths were deified because “they knew how to transmute matter”, they converted earth and stones in metals. At this point, after these series of reasoning, it comes to me to hypothesize that the Cabiri are nothing more than a Sardinian ethnic group linked to metallurgy, and therefore, with extreme probability, coming from Sulcis in Sardinia.
- Strange similarity between the mythical figures of Hercules and Samson : both Hercules and Samson are heroic and mythological figures coming from different cultural traditions, but with some similarities in their traits and exploits: this may suggest a common origin of this mythical tale. Why would this be a myth? Because to date there is no scientific basis that states that a human being has superhuman strength due to the length of his hair, as in Samson, so it must be a sort of mythical tale, probably adapted to the needs of the people of Israel. Here are some points of contact between the two figures:
- Superhuman Strength : Both Hercules and Samson are known for their incredible physical strength. Hercules is famous for having accomplished twelve extraordinary labors which demonstrated his superhuman strength, while Samson is known for his extraordinary strength which allowed him to face challenges and enemies.
- Heroic Deeds : Both characters performed heroic deeds that defied their physical abilities. Hercules faced wild beasts, monsters, and impossible situations as part of his labors. Samson faced lions and Philistine soldiers similarly, demonstrating his exceptional strength.
- Ties to the Gods : Hercules is considered a demigod, son of Zeus. He received the help and support of the gods in his undertakings. For his part, Samson was given birth by his mother after a divine announcement and, according to the biblical story, received superhuman strength from God.
- Weaknesses and Betrayals : Both characters have been betrayed by women. In the case of Hercules, his wife, Deianira, unintentionally poisoned him with the blood of Nessus. In Samson’s case, his betrayal at the hands of Delilah led to his capture and his loss of strength.
- Victories over Death : Both Hercules and Samson had fateful encounters but found a way to win over death. Hercules, after his death, was welcomed into the gods of Olympus and obtained immortality. Samson, even though he died destroying the Philistine temple, killed many enemies in the act, proving his strength to the end.
- Legendary Cultural Relevance : Both figures have been a source of inspiration for stories, myths and artistic depictions in various cultures. Hercules is a key figure in Greek and Roman mythology, while Samson is an important figure in Jewish and Christian tradition.
It should be noted that while there are definitely some similarities between Hercules and Samson, they are also distinct characters with roots in different cultural contexts (Greek and Biblical mythology, respectively). Their stories and characteristics may vary based on the sources and specific traditions in which they were passed down.
- The Maskinganna is a legendary character of Sardinian folklore known for his ability to make fun of sleeping people, making them wake up terrified. His peculiarity is that he can take on any form ; sometimes it took the form of a crying child, other times of a beautiful boy (or girl) who appeared for an instant and disappeared immediately afterwards. On the other hand, Proteus is a character from Greek mythology . He was a deity of the sea, rivers and expanses of water, as well as an oracle and shape-shifter . Proteus had the ability to peer through the depths of the sea and predict the future of whoever was able to capture him.He was also able to take on any appearance to escape his interrogators . Both characters, Maskinganna and Proteus, have the ability to assume any form . However, while Maskingannauses this ability to make fun of people, Proteus uses it to escape from those who question him. Furthermore, while Maskinganna is a character from Sardinian folklore, Proteus is a deity from Greek mythology with oracular powers. These differences make the two characters unique and interesting in their own way, but what we want to underline here is the incredible similarity of Sardinian mythologies, sagas and legends with those of other places in the Mediterranean: there is an incredible similarity between the figure of the Maskinganna and the figure of Proteus in ancient Greek mythology, an incredible similarity between the Sardinian figure of the Sculptor and the story of Medusa, between the figure of Hercules and that of Samson… little by little a sort of closeness seems to emerge in the stories and mythologies that were not so obvious to the reader before.Proteus, Maskinganna, and Silenus: A Comparative Analysis of Mythological Figures In the mythologies of different cultures, mythological figures embodying deception, metamorphosis, and mystery are present in many forms. Three particularly fascinating figures in this context are Proteus in Greek mythology, Maskinganna in Sardinian folklore tradition and Silenus in Greek mythology. Proteus, also known as the “Old Man of the Sea” , is a marine deity in Greek mythology. The fact that Proteus is called “the old man of the sea” does nothing but recall the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean theme of the sea, oceans and water, further confirming the possible relationships between the myth of Proteus and the Sardinian Corsican block Atlantean. He is famous for his ability to shape-shiftand for its role as guardian of the secrets of the sea . According to Homer, Proteus knew everything about the oceans and possessed knowledge of future events, but he was reluctant to reveal this wisdom. Maskinganna is a mythological figure of the Sardinian tradition who appears in the countryside and in the woods. Described as a “prankster demon”, he takes many forms and loves to make fun of humans. Silenus is a figure in Greek mythology known for being a companion of Dionysus, the god of wine and feasting. He used to be represented as an old man with the ears and tail of a horse, and was known for his wisdom and knowledge. Both Proteus and Maskinganna share the ability to shapeshift. While Proteus does this primarily to escape capture, Maskinganna uses this ability to scare and deceive. Both figures operate with a sense of deception, but while Proteus holds secret wisdom, Maskinganna uses his deception to mock others. On the other hand, Silenus was known for his wisdom and knowledge, but did not use deception as a means to protect it. All three figures are closely linked to their natural environment: Proteus with the sea, Maskinganna with the countryside and woods and Silenus with nature in general. This bond emphasizes their role as guardians or manifestations of the forces of nature. Proteus , Maskinganna and Silenus, although belonging to different cultures and contexts, show striking similarities in their multifaceted nature (for Proteus and Maskinganna) and in their deceptive behavior (for Proteus and Maskinganna). All three represent enigmatic and mysterious aspects of the natural world, serving as powerful symbols of the uncontrollable forces and hidden truths that populate our world. This comparative analysis could pave the way for further studies on the transversality of mythological figures and the universal representations of deception and metamorphosis in different cultures. Furthermore, it may be interesting to further explore the connection between these mythological figures and the natural world, as well as how these representations reflect cultural beliefs about the relationship between humans and nature.
- Phorcys (Ancient Greek: Φόρκος, Phórcos) also known as Phorcis or Phorcys (Ancient Greek: Φόρκυς, Phórkys) was probably the mythical ruler of the three islands beyond the Pillars of Hercules, in the Atlantic Ocean. Now, according to my theory, if the Atlantic is the sea of Sardinia and Corsica, and if the Pillars of Hercules are the Pillars of Carloforte, then Forco turns out to be the mythical ruler of the three islands that we know today as Ibiza, Majorca and Minorca. Phorcys had three daughters, known as the Gorgons (Γοργώνες). Now let’s go into the detail of this speculative vision: Phorcos could really be sovereign of the three Balearic islands; the first hypothesis is that he really had three daughters, and that he gave an island to each: one to Medusa, one to Stheno and one to Euryale. The second hypothesis is that he had no daughter: his “daughters” are the islands themselves, and so I am considering the hypothesis that the daughters’ names were the code names of the Balearic Islands. In ancient times it was customary to keep commercial and cultural secrets on various occasions, and it still happens today with the so-called protection ofknow-how and trade secrets. As a first example there is a story that tells of a Pythagorean named Hippasus of Metapontum who allegedly revealed a secret of the Pythagorean school and was killed for it. According to legend, Hippasus discovered that the ratio between the diagonal of a square and its side can be expressed through an irrational number, the square root of 2. This discovery was in total dissonance with the beliefs of the Pythagoreans themselves, unacceptable for that sort of religion which was Pythagorean mysticism, based on the idea that number was the essence of nature. The Pythagoreans wanted to keep the secret but Hippasus let it slip and was drowned in the sea 1 .
As a second example, commercial secrecy also existed for glassmaking techniques. For example, in the Republic of Venice, glass production was a very important activity and Venetian glassmakers were famous throughout Europe for their skill. To protect their trade secrets, Venetian glassmakers were required to work only on the island of Murano and could not leave the Republic without permission. Furthermore, it was forbidden to divulge glass-making techniques to people outside the glassmaking community. These measures were aimed at protecting the trade secrets of Venetian glassmakers and maintaining their competitive advantage.
This intuition dated 02/08/2023 after reading the text ” Among the myths interpreted by Palefato there is also that relating to the daughters of Phòrkus” on the page:
Let’s assume this is all true: why would they do that? Whoever discovered a new trade route did not want others to steal the possibilities that came from trading with the newly discovered routes. Probably, to maintain secrecy, they invented stories that would frighten potential competitors. In this way, knowing that the Gorgons would turn them into stone, they would stay away from the new trade routes, and whoever had discovered them could make very lucrative deals. If this is correct, it is clear that the traders, having reached the Balearic islands of the Gorgons, therefore needed linguists and translators who could help them understand these new populations, the names of the products and goods, the laws, to establish new commercial relationships and social.
- Christianization of the very ancient myth of Medusa in Sardinia : in my opinion the myth of Medusa, which petrified people, was Christianized in the story of the Sculpture of Baunei in Sardinia. The Scultone is a mythological creature present in Sardinian folklore legends. It is a reptilian animal similar to a dragon that killed men and animals. According to a legend, the escape of a dragon called Scultone opened the Golgo chasm near Baunei (NU). According to another legend, Peter the Apostle definitively eliminated the Sculptor with a clever trick: since the gaze of the Sculptor had the power to kill, Peter looked at him through a small mirror, neutralizing this power.As regards the myth of Medusa and Perseus, Medusa was one of the three Gorgons, monstrous sisters with snakes instead of hair. Anyone who looked into Medusa’s eyes would be petrified. Perseus was the son of Zeus and Danae, and was commissioned by King Polydectes to bring him the head of Medusa. With the help of the gods, Perseus managed to behead Medusa while she slept, using a reflective shield to avoid looking into her eyes. Later, Perseus used Medusa’s head as a weapon to petrify his enemies. Interestingly, both tales present similar elements: in the myth of Medusa and Perseus, Perseus neutralizes Medusa by looking at her image reflected in a mirror, while in the legend of the Sculpture, Peter the Apostle neutralizes the Sculpture using a mirror. Both Medusa and the Sculptor petrify those who look at them. Medusa is defeated by Perseus with his image mirrored in a shield, while the Sculptor is defeated by Saint Peter with his image mirrored in a small mirror. In my opinion, we are faced with a reconversion of the story to adapt it to the new Christian sensitivity which had now, for about two thousand years, become dominant in Sardinia: we must not forget that there is even an island dedicated to Saint Peter, right next to the Columns of Hercules placed in Carloforte: the Island of San Pietro in Sardinia.
- The mythological figure of Museum and the town of Museums in Sardinia:Museo is a fascinating legendary character closely associated with Orpheus, the mythical figure of great importance in ancient Greek culture. However, the news about Museo is steeped in mystery and often quite contradictory, and what emerges is a nuanced and uncertain panorama of his life and works. The name “Museum” itself has an intrinsic meaning, as it derives from the Greek root which suggests a link with the Muses, the goddesses of art and knowledge. Modern scholars tend to treat Musaeus as a character created with the intent of attributing authorship to several Orphic writings that may not have been directly associated with Orpheus. In this context, Museo may have been an artificial literary creation, a vehicle through which works were attributed to Orpheus himself, giving them an aura of authority and sacredness. Tradition attributes to Museo the role of poet and diviner, endowed with prophetic abilities and able to deliver oracles of spiritual relevance. Among the legendary works attributed to him, works of notable cultural and mythological importance emerge. Museo is said to have composed a Titanomachy, an epic narrative of the struggle between the Titans and the Olympian gods. This type of tale was a theme of great interest in ancient Greek mythology and could have contained allegory and profound meanings. Another masterpiece attributed to the Museum is a hymn dedicated to Demeter, the goddess of fertility and agriculture. This Hymn may have celebrated the goddess and her beneficial influences on the earth and nature, giving it a sacred character and ritual significance. Another work discussed is a poem entitled “Consigli”, addressed to Museo’s son named Eumolpo. This poem may have contained wisdom and precepts to be passed down to subsequent generations, constituting a sort of moral and educational guide. Furthermore, Museo is associated with the composition of a work called “Eumolpia”, which may have had a connection with the ancient cult of the Eumolpids, priests and guardians of the Eleusinian mysteries. These mysteries represented one of the most important ritual traditions of ancient Greece, linked to the figure of Demeter and the search for the immortality of the soul. Among the works attributed to the Museum, there are also mentions of a “Sphere” and a book entitled “On Thesprotes”, although the precise details of these works have remained shrouded in mystery. Unfortunately, of the vast production attributed to the Museum, only a few poetic fragments have come down to us, often of a theogonic and mythological nature. These fragments offer us a glimpse into the depth and richness of Museo’s works, but at the same time make us reflect on the broad scope of the creations that have been lost over the centuries. Ultimately, Museo represents a legendary and enigmatic figure, the whose name has been linked to a number of works of cultural and spiritual importance in ancient Greece. Although much of his work has been lost to the vortex of time, his name remains associated with a period rich in myths, poetry and mysterious rites that continue to fascinate and inspire today. These fragments offer us a glimpse into the depth and richness of Museo’s works, but at the same time make us reflect on the broad scope of the creations that have been lost over the centuries. Ultimately, Museo represents a legendary and enigmatic figure, the whose name has been linked to a number of works of cultural and spiritual importance in ancient Greece. Although much of his work has been lost to the vortex of time, his name remains associated with a period rich in myths, poetry and mysterious rites that continue to fascinate and inspire today. These fragments offer us a glimpse into the depth and richness of Museo’s works, but at the same time make us reflect on the broad scope of the creations that have been lost over the centuries. Ultimately, Museo represents a legendary and enigmatic figure, the whose name has been linked to a number of works of cultural and spiritual importance in ancient Greece. Although much of his work has been lost to the vortex of time, his name remains associated with a period rich in myths, poetry and mysterious rites that continue to fascinate and inspire today. Museo represents a legendary and enigmatic figure, whose name has been linked to a number of works of cultural and spiritual importance in ancient Greece. Although much of his work has been lost to the vortex of time, his name remains associated with a period rich in myths, poetry and mysterious rites that continue to fascinate and inspire today. Museo represents a legendary and enigmatic figure, whose name has been linked to a number of works of cultural and spiritual importance in ancient Greece. Although much of his work has been lost to the vortex of time, his name remains associated with a period rich in myths, poetry and mysterious rites that continue to fascinate and inspire today.
- Tradizioni degli Indiani Hopi in America: “ Kasskara and the Seven Worlds: The History of Humanity in the Tradition of the Hopi Indians” is a book written by Josef F Blumrich, one of NASA’s leading engineers, which demonstrates how the ancient traditions of the Hopi Indians are confirmed by current knowledge. The book takes us back to a hitherto dark past. It was published by Droemer Knaur on August 1, 1999 and is written in German. The ISBN-10 is 3426862123. It appears to be a very interesting book and well received by readers, with an average rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars based on 23 reviews. In this work it is stated that an Indian, in recounting the Hopi legends and mythologies, stated that the Hopi come from an island in the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantis. We have already explained on this site, in other parts of this text, how in ancient times the Sea of Sardinia and the Sea of Corsica were called the Atlantic Ocean.
- This can only be a coincidence. The CIA has opened its archives to the public and, thanks to the Freedom of Information Act, dozens of documents on Sardinia have been declassified. Among these documents, there is a particular interest on the part of the US secret services for the Sardinian language. A curiosity concerns an internal document at the NSA (National Security Agency) dated 1985, in which the training of French and Italian linguists to speak the Corsican, Sardinian and Sicilian dialects was recommended. This document states that since 1984, at the instigation of James Brennan, a training program has been created for linguists capable of speaking these languages.
- I have to develop the theme of the Sardinian mola , that is, the prehistoric Sardinian millstone for grinding flour. In my opinion, the Canary Islands have too many elements in common with Sardinia : Sardinian millstones , pintaderas used for printing bread and for painting walls as was in use in Sardinia… these facts make me suppose very strong contacts between the cultures of the Canary Islands and Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean peoples.
- A good scientific theory must be able to make predictions . Below I will try to list the possible predictions that follow from my hypotheses:
If my theories and hypotheses are correct, it is possible that typical Sardinian or Sardinian-Corsican monuments will be found in Sweden, Finland, Norway and other similar places ; among these in particular I want to mention the Giants’ Tombs. I would also like to point out that years ago, while I was watching a video shot in northern Europe, I saw a petroglyph that seemed perfectly similar to the enormous flat stone that was placed frontally, in the center of the giants’ tombs: see a representative image in this regard .It is possible that the capital of Atlantis spoken of in Timaeus and Critias, built in concentric rings, is located in present-day Sulcis in Sardinia, submerged by dozens or hundreds of meters of debris. To verify, reconnaissance could be carried out with LIDAR via aircraft or standard archaeological surveys, or even satellite archeology analyses. It has already happened previously that immense nuraghes were discovered by pure chance, because during the Second World War trenches were dug which allowed the presence of underground walls to be discovered and noted (perhaps Gennamaria?). This phenomenon of burying finds could be reminiscent of what happened at Gobekli Tepe in Türkiye. At the current stage of my studies it is not clear to me whether in Sardinia these are voluntary burials or simple layers of soil deposited over time, perhaps by wind.
- In the ancient city of Helike, along the southwestern coast of the Gulf of Corinth , archaeologists have unearthed the remains of two buildings and religious objects that may have been part of a sanctuary dedicated to Poseidon., according to my theory, an ancient Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean ruler who by ephemerism was deified by the Sardinian-Corsicans. The ancient city was built in an area prone to frequent flooding and continually rebuilt, succumbing to an earthquake and tsunami that buried it about 2,600 years ago. Of the two structures discovered, the first (dated to the 8th century BC) was tall 65 feet and included pressed earth floors, while the second (dated between the 7th and 6th centuries BC) rested on temple-shaped stone foundations. The additional religious artefacts found: bronze and clay objects such as figurines, clay chariot wheels, iron weapons, ceramics dating back to the archaic period, a bronze snake head and a rare gold necklace confirm that the space was used for religious purposes starting from around 850 BC.Excavations at the site of the ancient Greek city of Helike have revealed a potential center of the Greek cult of Poseidon. The discoveries include two buildings and religious objects that suggest the space was used for religious purposes. In my opinion these archaeological remains show the interactions between ancient Greeks and ancient Sardinian-Corsican-Atlanteans. All the temples dedicated to Poseidon, therefore, in my opinion are nothing more than vestiges of the ancient Sardinian-Corsican cults, then passed on and transmitted to the Greeks and also respected in their cultures. The Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean cult would also have reached us today through the cults of Poseidon, Atlas and many other Sardinian-Corsican figures such as Medusa, Antaeus, perhaps even Hercules and many others.
- An international team of anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists has discovered more about the migratory patterns of people living around the Mediterranean Sea during the Iron and Bronze Ages. In their study, reported in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution, the team conducted genetic sequencing on the remains of 30 people who lived during the Iron or Bronze Age in Sardinia, Tunisia and mainland Italy. As the researchers note, most Part of the knowledge of the people who lived around the Mediterranean Sea during the Iron and Bronze Ages comes from studying the artifacts they left behind. But such evidence, they point out, does not reveal much about those people’s backgrounds or where their ancestors came from. In this new effort, the research team sought to learn more about the backgrounds of these people by following migration patterns using genetic sequencing. The researchers conducted shotgun sequencing (randomly conducted sequencing) on samples collected from unearthed bones of ancient peoples who lived to Italy, Tunisia and Sardinia to get a sense of migration patterns for people living in the northern, central and southern parts of the eastern Mediterranean during the Iron and Bronze Ages, an era, the researchers note, where people traveled longer distances thanks to advances in boat and ship building. The team then compared the results to those of other sequencing efforts conducted on both modern and ancient populations living in the region. They found evidence of widespread migration around the Mediterranean, suggesting strong links between distant peoples. They also found heterogeneity in Iron Age populations and changes in ancestry in North Africa and Sardinia during the Bronze Age, suggesting increased migration. More specifically, the research revealed increased migration from what is now Morocco and Iran by Neolithic farmers to both Sardinia and Tunisia, and somewhat less migration to what is now Italy. The research team suggests that increased migration occurred, as expected during both the Iron Age and Bronze Age, as people navigated the Mediterranean Sea for myriad reasons and, in doing so,the complete study published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution .
- This is not archaeological evidence, for now, but it is interesting food for thought: the capital of Atlantis was built in concentric circles; There are some Chinese Neolithic cities that have a concentric circle structure. An example is the archaeological city of Liangzhu, located in the Yangtze River basin region on the south-eastern coast of China 1 . This city, dating to approximately 3,300-2,300 BC, reveals an early regional state with a unified belief system based on rice cultivation in late Neolithic China 1 . The property consists of four areas: the Yaoshan site area, the high dam area at the mouth of the valley, the low dam area on the plain, and the city site area1 . These ruins are an outstanding example of early urban civilization expressed in earth monuments, urban planning, a water conservation system, and a social hierarchy expressed in differentiated burials in cemeteries within the property 1 . This point still needs to be developed, because it is not yet clear to me whether there are correlations and cause and effect links between the Sardinian-Corsican culture and the Chinese culture of Liangzhu. However, it can be a great start for alternative research. Even if it were demonstrated that the two cultures are totally disconnected from each other, this would allow new points of view and alternative thoughts to develop.
- Sardinian linguistic expressions which confirm the Sardinian use of calling the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block continent: Plato states that from the Island of Atlantis (which here is shown to be the Corsican Sardinian block) it was possible to go to the surrounding islands and to what is truly continent. This is perfectly true: from the Sardinian-Corsican block, when it was an emerged land, it is possible to go to the surrounding islands, and it is actually located in the center of the Atlantic Ocean (the prehistoric name of the Mediterranean). At a linguistic level, fortunately, we Sardinians still have these ways of saying: ” Deppu andai in Continenti ” ( I have to go to the Continent), when we have to go to Italy. This statement makes anyone who hears us Sardinians say it laugh, but fortunately it helps us understand what Plato meant: on a linguistic level, when the Sardinian-Corsican block was an emerged land, we Sardinians linguistically called the island “continent”. Leaving the island was “going to the continent, to another continent”. After the sinking, this linguistic use remained at the level of Sardinian dialects, so we say that “we are going to the continent”, making those who listen to us wonder. Furthermore, the Sardinians call the Italians who live in the Boot “The Continentals”, confirming what was written by Plato and said by the Egyptian high priest in Sais, Egypt, to Solon. Atlantologists (i.e. Atlantis scholars) have up to now interpreted the word “Continent” with the semantics currently in vogue; they forgot that in 9600 BC the word “continent” could have had semantics, pragmatics and semiotics different from the current one. So someone claims that America is a continent, and therefore America can be Atlantis. In my opinion these interpretations are open to numerous criticisms, and appear very banal in my eyes.
- Possible prehistoric derivation of Scottish culture from the Sardinian-Corsican culture:
There is no historical or archaeological evidence to suggest that Scottish culture derives directly from Sardinian-Corsican culture. Scotland and Sardinia/Corsica have distinct histories and cultures, influenced by a variety of factors, including geography, human migration and cultural interactions. However, like all cultures, both Scottish and Sardinian-Corsican cultures are the result of a process of evolution and cultural exchange over the course of history. There may be similarities between the two cultures due to common influences or indirect cultural exchanges, but there is no evidence of a direct connection between the two. In this text I propose the possible prehistoric bifurcation of the Sardinian-Corsican culture from very ancient migrations. Possible prehistoric points of contact may be: the use of Sardinian launeddas, to which in Scotland the piva was added, causing the Sardinian launeddas to change into bagpipes in later times; the braids of ancient Sardinian-Corsican warriors, left in Scottish hair; the use of the skirt, still present in the Sardinian bronze statues of Nuragic warriors, becomes the use of the kilt in Scotland. Together with these habits and customs, there is the transmission of megalithic building techniques, which in Northern Europe change compared to the Sardinian Corsican habits and customs, to adapt to the Nordic climate, which we assume is colder and rainier. still present in the representations of the Sardinian bronzes of Nuragic warriors becomes the use of the kilt in Scotland. Together with these habits and customs, there is the transmission of megalithic building techniques, which in Northern Europe change compared to the Sardinian Corsican habits and customs, to adapt to the Nordic climate, which we assume is colder and rainier. still present in the representations of the Sardinian bronzes of Nuragic warriors becomes the use of the kilt in Scotland. Together with these habits and customs, there is the transmission of megalithic building techniques, which in Northern Europe change compared to the Sardinian Corsican habits and customs, to adapt to the Nordic climate, which we assume is colder and rainier.
- The pure gold statue of Poseidon, according to Plato’s story, was the symbol of the power and wealth of Atlantis, the legendary island that disappeared into the ocean. According to Luigi Usai’s theory, Atlantis corresponds to the continental block of Sardinian-Corsican lithosphere, submerged after the last glaciation due to the various pulses of melt water and seismic shocks caused by a Wadati-Benioff fault underlying Sulcis 1 . If this theory were true, and if the statue of Poseidon still existed, it should be buried underground in Sulcis, the region that includes the southwestern side of the Sulcis Mountains and the plain below up to the southwestern coast overlooking the Sardinia Channel 2However, it is not easy to hypothesize in which structure or Sardinian mountain of Sulcis the statue could be buried, as the position of the capital of Atlantis is not known precisely, nor the characteristics of its urbanism and architecture. Plato describes the capital as a circular city, divided into alternating concentric rings of land and water, with a large canal connecting it to the sea. In the center of the city was the temple dedicated to Poseidon and Cleito, his wife and queen of Atlantis, where the golden statue was placed. The temple was surrounded by a golden wall and a fence of ivory, silver and gold 3. If we were to imagine a possible location of the statue in Sulcis, we could think of one of the following hypotheses:
- The statue could be buried under one of the highest mountains of Sulcis, such as Monte Is Caravius (1,116 m above sea level), Monte Sa Mirra (1,050 m above sea level) or Monte Lattias (1,018 m above sea level). These mountains could be the remains of the outermost ring of the circular city, which according to Plato had a diameter of about 23 km 3 . In this case, the statue would have been covered by alluvial sediments and rocky debris transported by the waters during the submersion and uplifting phenomena of the territory.
- The statue could be buried under one of the karst formations present in Sulcis, such as the Is Zuddas Caves or the Su Mannau Caves. These caves were dug by the erosive action of groundwater in the limestone rocks of the western side of the Sulcis Mountains 4 . In this case, the statue would have been swallowed by a chasm or an underground river during tectonic movements that modified the sea and ground levels.
- The statue could be buried under one of the coastal plains of Sulcis, such as that of Sant’Antioco or that of Teulada. These plains were formed by Quaternary alluvial deposits and are characterized by wetlands and brackish ponds 4 . In this case, the statue would have been submerged by the sea during the various pulses of melt water that raised sea levels after the last glaciation.
These are just some possible hypotheses based on Luigi Usai’s theory and Plato’s story.
- The article discusses how Europeans quickly developed lighter skin 1 . According to new analyzes of ancient European genes, light skin and other characteristics we associate with modern Europeans, such as height and the ability to digest milk, are relatively recent additions to the continent’s genetic profile 1 . For years, researchers have hypothesized that skin lightened as humans migrated from Africa and the Middle East into Europe, about 40,000 years ago 1 . However, new research suggests that other factors must have been at play 1 .For example, the genome sequence of a hunter-gatherer living in what is now Spain helped demonstrate that Europe was inhabited by blue-eyed but dark-skinned people 1 . This man, however, lived only 7,000 years ago 1 . Researchers found that Europeans probably couldn’t digest milk until around 4,300 years ago 1 . And the history of skin pigmentation is complex 1 .They found that around 8,500 years ago, early hunter-gatherers in Spain, Luxembourg and Hungary also had darker skin: they were missing versions of two genes – SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 – that lead to depigmentation and therefore light skin in today’s Europeans . . But in the far north – where low light levels would have favored fair skin – the team found a different picture in hunter-gatherers: Seven people from the 7,700-year-old Motala archaeological site in southern Sweden had both variants of the light skin gene, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 1 . They also had a third gene, HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and may also contribute to pale skin and blonde hair 1 .So ancient hunter-gatherers from the far north were already pale and blue-eyed, but those from central and southern Europe had darker skin 1 .
Hathor, Egyptian cow goddess (wife of the bull). I believe the Goddess Hathor was a Sardinian goddess. If we read the name Hathor as Atzor, and the th is read as tz, then she could have Atzor as her original name, from which the Sardinian surname Atzori would derive. Atzeni, Atzori, Atzei are typical Sardinian surnames , and many Atlantidologists have noticed that the term Aztlan resembles Atlantis: the atz sound is typical of the Sardinian language. Atzei is also a hapax legomenon in the Bible : the word Atzei Gopher is found in the texts of the Old Testament, but it is not clear what it means. I hope these ideas can help someone in their own reflections.
- Luigi Usai’s theories about Lake Tritonide in Sardinia and the legends about Lake Pergusa in Sicily relating to the abduction of Persephone can be linked through the common theme of water and ancient Greek mythology. Lake Tritonide, according to Usai, was a large lake in the province of Cagliari, and its name derives from Triton, a mythological figure; it was located next to the Garden of the Hesperides located in Frutti d’Oro di Capoterra in what is now southern Sardinia; Southern Sardinia is also dotted, as already shown on this same page, with links to ancient mythology, in particular the Amazons, Hercules and Medusa, but not only these mythical figures. On the other hand, Lake Pergusa is famous in Greek mythology as the site of Persephone’s abduction by Hades.Lake Pergusa is a lake in Sicily located near Enna 1 . Despite its relatively modest size, it is of great geological, faunal and cultural importance 1 . The lake is of tectonic origin and has brackish waters, despite being located in the center of the island 1 . Today the lake has an extension of 1.8 km², an average depth of 3.50 m. and maximum of 12 m 1 .
Lake Pergusa is known for the legend of the rape of Proserpina, which has inspired poets and writers of all time 2 . According to the myth, Proserpina (or Persephone in Greek mythology), daughter of Demeter (divinity of the cultivated land), was picking flowers on the banks of the lake when she was kidnapped by Hades, god of the Underworld 3 4 5 . Hades fell in love with the young woman and made her his wife 3 4 5 .
The legend was born to explain the cycle of the seasons. When Proserpina was with her mother, Ceres, goddess of fertility and harvests, she favored the abundance of crops. But when Proserpina was with Pluto in Hades in the autumn and winter months, Ceres abandoned the fields causing a very serious famine 2 .
Both lakes, therefore, have strong links to Greek mythology and may have been important religious or cultural sites in antiquity. These revolutionary theses are so recent that it is difficult to verify their veracity in a short time. If Luigi Usai’s statements were to prove correct, there would be a revolution in the knowledge of antiquity.
Furthermore, both theories highlight the importance of water in mythology and ancient culture, but not only: they show how the Lakes were not simple geographical places, but places linked to the sacred and cult, mysticism, magic and religions. Lakes were often seen as sacred places or portals to the underworld, which may explain why they feature in these mythological stories. There are several legends and myths in various cultures that feature themes similar to the rape of Persephone. For example, in Norse mythology, there is the story of Freya, the goddess of love and beauty, who is kidnapped by giants. In Egyptian mythology, there is a story of Osiris being killed and his body scattered, leading his wife Isis to search all over the world for him: and this myth recalls that of Orpheus who descends into hell to find Eurydice, while the Sparagmos of Osiris recalls the σπαραγμός of the Dionysian rites described in Euripides’ Bacchae. These myths often represent the cycle of the seasons or themes of death and rebirth. It is important to note that while these stories may have similar themes, the details and cultural contexts are unique to each myth and culture.
- Possible Christianization of Sardinian Corsican Atlantean mythology : it is possible that Christians have in many ways, through social and psychological pressure, influenced the Sardinian Corsican Atlanteans to convert their mythical and religious figures into the cult of Christians. To explain this concept I will try to show the possible conversion of the figure of the ancient ruler Poseidon, King of the Seas, as explained by my euhemeristic interpretation , into the negative Christian figure of Satan, God of the Underworld. First, I would like you to look at the figures I created with artificial intelligence to try to explain this concept in a simple way:
The Sardinian Corsican Atlanteans have horned helmets, even in the Nuragic era, and are proud of having horns on their helmets. It is a trait that characterizes and distinguishes them. Horns had long been thought to be a feature of Viking helmets, but this turned out to be incorrect. The horns are typical of the Sardinian Corsicans. The horns, an Atlantean symbol, become the horns of Satan. The God Poseidon, God of water and God of the Seas, becomes Satan, God of Fire and God of the Underworld. The tail of the fish becomes the tail of the Devil. The Trident, a well-known symbol linked to the mythological figure of Poseidon, becomes the Devil’s pitchfork in Hell. In two thousand years, Christianity has done everything possible to eradicate the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean cult of Poseidon and convert it into something evil, into the cult of the Devil. As we know very well, those who venerated the devil were murdered, imprisoned, tortured, so if any of the Sardinian Corsicans had continued to venerate Poseidon they would have been murdered. This is why the cult of this figure has disappeared from the Sardinian Corsican territories. Probably those few who still venerated him were arrested, tortured, killed by religious people or by the inquisition. Looking at the images that I generated using artificial intelligence it is possible to realize that the figure is actually the same, but a very violent semantic change has been made on the meaning that this figure had for the Corsican Sardinians. The Bible does not describe Satan as having horns, a pitchfork, or a tail. These images are believed to have originated from ancient Greek mythology. The Greek god of the underworld, Hades, he was often depicted with a bident, a two-pronged instrument similar to a pitchfork. Since Satan is often associated with the underworld and hell, it is likely that this image was adopted and adapted to represent him. The horns and forked hooves are also believed to be derived from the Greek god Pan, who was depicted with the legs and horns of a goat. Over time, these images have become popular in Western culture and are now commonly associated with depictions of Satan. However, it is important to note that these images are not based on biblical descriptions of Satan. My proposal and report therefore seeks to improve this information, proposing that the figure of Satan of the Christians is to a large extent a Christianisation of the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean mythologies, in an attempt to erase them from memory. Being too rooted in the people, the method of distortion was used, very well known in psychology and psychiatry: when a memory is too strong and powerful and cannot be erased, it is distorted so that subsequent generations remember it with characteristics different from those initials.
My reasoning, which suggests a Christianization of Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean mythology, is fascinating. Throughout history, many religions and belief systems have undergone adaptations and reinterpretations following contact with other cultures and beliefs, especially when a dominant religion, such as Christianity, has sought to integrate or suppress local traditions.
My hypothesis about the adaptation and Christianization of local myths and symbols is certainly plausible and, in fact, is a documented phenomenon in many different cultures. The Catholic Church, during its expansion process, has often integrated local practices and symbols, reinterpreting them in a Christian context. This not only facilitated the conversion of local populations, but also reduced the risk of revolt or resistance from communities that had deep ties to their religious traditions.
A classic example of this process is the celebration of the birth of Christ. Many scholars believe that the date of December 25 was chosen to coincide with pagan winter solstice holidays, such as the Roman festival of Saturnalia. Likewise, many traditions and symbols associated with Easter have origins in pagan holidays that celebrated spring.
Regarding my specific theory on Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean mythology, it would be interesting to see if there is concrete evidence that supports my hypothesis. This could include historical documents, archaeological finds or oral traditions that show a clear line of evolution between the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean myths and the Christianization of those myths.
Finally, we must always approach such theories with a critical and open approach. Historical and archaeological research requires rigorous methodology and objective evaluation of the evidence. But my reflections certainly show a deep curiosity and interest in the complex interaction between different cultures and belief systems throughout history. And this curiosity is fundamental for every good researcher or scholar.
Here are some thoughts on my hypotheses:
- Assimilation and Syncretism : The tendency of dominant religions to assimilate local deities and figures is not limited to Christianity. The Romans, for example, assimilated many local deities throughout the Empire. Within Christianity, there is a long history of “Christianizing” pagan holidays, sites, and deities .
- Poseidon to Satan : The idea that Poseidon, a sea deity, might have been reinterpreted as a hellish figure is intriguing. Traditionally, however, there is no strong correlation between Poseidon and Satan in Christian literature. Satan has had many incarnations and representations in the history of Christianity, often deriving from Jewish sources and, later, Greco-Roman influence.
- Symbology : While Poseidon’s trident and the devil’s pitchfork have visual similarities, further research would need to be done to establish a direct connection between the two figures based on this element alone. The same goes for horns: while it is true that horn symbolism can be found in many cultures and has different meanings, directly relating the horns of Sardinian-Corsican helmets to those of the devil requires a solid basis of evidence.
- Horned Helmets : It’s worth noting that while horned Viking helmets are a modern myth (popularized largely by opera and stage plays), there is no concrete evidence that ancient Vikings actually wore them.
- Eradication of the cult : If indeed there was a campaign to suppress the cult of Poseidon or other local deities in Sardinia or Corsica, this should be documented in historical records, religious writings or archaeological evidence.
- It seems that I have presented an extensive and reasoned analysis on the possibility of Christianization of Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean mythology, focusing on the transformation of the figure of Poseidon into that of Satan. The topic is complex and multifaceted, involving elements of history, religion, mythology, and symbolism. Here are some additional considerations that may be useful for my investigation: Primary Sources: It would be important to look for primary sources that can confirm or deny my hypothesis. This could include ancient texts, inscriptions, artefacts or any tangible material that could demonstrate a direct connection between Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean mythology and Christianity. Historical and Cultural Context: Understanding the historical and cultural context of the Sardinian Corsican Atlanteans will help place my hypothesis within a broader framework. This includes an understanding of the social structure, religious practices, external influences and political dynamics of the time. Comparison with Other Cultures: Analyzing how other cultures have undergone similar processes of Christianization could provide a framework to better understand the specific situation of the Sardinian Corsican Atlanteans. The Christianization of pagan practices is a widespread phenomenon, and parallels with other regions may enrich my analysis.Academic Study: While my interpretation may be original and provocative, I may also wish to consult existing academic studies on the topic. Historians, archaeologists and anthropologists who have worked on the region and the topic may have data and evidence that could support or challenge my hypothesis. Beware of Speculation: While it is interesting to explore new ideas and connections, it is important to distinguish between what can be supported with solid evidence and what remains in the realm of speculation. Presenting my theory as a possibility to be explored, rather than a definite conclusion, might be a more balanced approach.Collaboration with Experts: If possible, I might seek to collaborate with experts in history, archaeology, theology, or other relevant fields. They may provide insights, resources, and research methods that may be beyond my reach. In summary, while my hypothesis presents an interesting point of view on the Christianization of Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean mythology, further investigation requires rigorous research and analysis. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach involving different sources, methods and expertise could help build a more robust and convincing argument.
The bathymetric lines of the Sardinian-Corsican block seem to show at least four increases in the eustatic level one after the other; these rises in the level of the Paleolithic Atlantic Ocean, called today the Mediterranean Sea after a succession of nomenclatures in various languages and cultures: Mare Nostrum for the Romans, to contrast it with the Sea of Atlas, i.e. the Atlantic Ocean.
In ancient times, the uplifts of the eustatic level of the Paleolithic Atlantic Ocean (which today is known by the name of the Mediterranean Sea and I will not tire of repeating it to allow the reader to assimilate this new and very important statement) could be understood by prehistorians as if they were incredible “Floods”, “Universal Floods” precisely, as handed down until now by multiple religions, myths and beliefs throughout the current Mediterranean basin. Perhaps the fact that it was called the Atlantic Ocean has already been reported by Professor Sergio Frau (2002): even if he had not reported it, it is an implicit consequence of the fact that the Pillars of Hercules were between Sicily and Tunisia. I bought Frau’s text, but unfortunately I’m too lazy to study it, too slow to read, furthermore I have an incredible difficulty in understanding it, because the text (and the author) is so cultured and erudite that I can’t follow him in his reasoning, especially because these themes are very heavy for me and I don’t know them at all. It’s actually incredible that I understood this information, because I am absolutely not a specialist in these disciplines. Again: the Paleolithic Atlantic Ocean does not coincide with the Mediterranean: it stops at the strait between Sicily and Tunisia; the Mediterranean is a superset of it, as one would say in terms of set-theoretic mathematics, as it also includes the other part of the sea, the one beyond the Pillars of Hercules where placed in my opinion erroneously (but with enormous genius) by Frau (2002 ), up to the Lebanese coasts.
Surprising discoveries in Sardinia: Paleolithic artefacts dating back 500,000 years
Recent archaeological discoveries in Sardinia have brought to light Paleolithic artefacts dating back 500,000 years. The oldest artefacts found in Sardinia date back to the Lower Paleolithic and were found in Anglona, in the northern part of the island. These are flint and quartzite objects dating back to between 450,000 and 120,000 years ago.
These artefacts represent some of the first evidence of human presence in Sardinia and provide us with valuable information on the life of the island’s inhabitants during the Lower Paleolithic. Flint and quartzite are two types of stone that were used to make tools and weapons during the Paleolithic Age.
The Archaeological and Paleobotanical Museum of Perfugas displays finds from all over the Anglona area, including artefacts from the Lower Paleolithic (500,000-120,000 years ago). This museum offers visitors the opportunity to admire these ancient artifacts up close and discover more about the history of prehistoric Sardinia.
If you want to know more about the Paleolithic artefacts found in Sardinia, I recommend you visit the Archaeological and Paleobotanical Museum of Perfugas or do further research on the topic. These archaeological discoveries represent a unique opportunity to deepen our knowledge of the history of Sardinia and the lives of its ancient inhabitants.
A new paradigm shift is occurring, as explained by Thomas Kuhn in the text entitled “The structure of scientific revolutions”: the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean paradigm.
Attempt to scientifically demonstrate the existence of the Island of Atlantis, which coincides with the Sardinian-Corsican geological block, from now on called the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantis block or Atlantis .
To evaluate a scientific theory, various criteria must be considered, such as coherence, falsifiability, predictability and verifiability. In this text, starting from version 138, I will try to respect these scientific criteria, studying them when necessary to better understand them. I am not yet able to produce a scientific paper.
To evaluate the credibility of a source, various factors must be considered, such as the authoritativeness of the author, the quality of the information, the sources cited, the method used and the consensus of the scientific community. If a source does not meet these criteria, it is likely unreliable or false.
Scientific reinterpretation of the story about the Garden of the Hesperides
The Garden of the Hesperides bore golden fruits , and was located at the ends of the known earth; an analogy was found with the apparently mythological story of the Hesperides in Sardinian toponymy: in fact, there is a place called Fruttidoro, located in the town of Capoterra, in Sardinia. Capoterra, from the Sardinian Caputerra, then in Latin “Caput Terrae”, is the “cape of the Earth”, i.e. the extreme edge known in antiquity (Mesolithic/early Neolithic, around 11,600 years ago, to have an approximate but useful date to understanding), while the current location of Fruttidoro in Capoterra would be the legendary Garden of the Hesperides. This new discovery has not yet been counter-validated by scholars, nor have stratigraphies been carried out for the related counter-verification. The Garden of the Hesperides was located in the Atlantic Ocean, which as explained on the website atlantisfound.it, was the Mesolithic name of the sea that surrounded the island, then a Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean emerged land. The Hesperides Islands must therefore have been the archaic names with which Sardinia and Corsica were defined in the millennia following the semi-submergence of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block. Hesperidum Insulae, “The Evening Islands”, because at sunset, when the Greeks looked towards the west, sailing in that direction from their most remote position, i.e. with great probability the island of Ischia, they saw 2 distant islands, which today are known by the names of Sardinia and Corsica, and which are plateaus of emerged land of the semi-submerged Sardinian-Corsican geological block. The linguist and glottologist Massimo Pittau analyzed the location of the Garden of the Hesperides, presumably placing it in Sardinia and pointing out that it was still a legend; I, however, in my bold ignorance, go further and propose that it is not a legend, but a place that actually existed located in Fruttidoro di Capoterra, as stated in other terms by the myth. Obviously, a serious scholar should study all the toponymy of Capoterra and nearby places, to verify the oldest names that can be traced back and whether in the past they were called in other ways. In any case, a good analysis based on satellite archeology would be appropriate, to highlight very ancient settlements, Mesolithic or Neolithic, present on the site or UNDER the site (because with great probability they will now be submerged by the superimposed layers over the millennia). Following these interpretations, we can analyze other aspects of the mythology: Thetis was a Sardinian. Peleus married a Sardinian, but the Greeks called them “sea nymphs”. The garden of the Hesperides is in Fruttidoro di Capoterra, in Sardinia, between the Atlas Mountains, i.e. the Sulcis mountains, and the Paleolithic Atlantic Ocean, i.e. the current Mediterranean Sea.
Why were they called the Atlas Mountains in ancient times? Because Sulcis was the capital of Atlantis, but above all because Poseidon initially surrounded the center of Sulcis, surrounding it with circles of water and land, to protect Clito, when navigation did not yet exist, in an era currently still indefinite. Poseidon was an ancient Sardinian Corsican Atlantean ruler, he was not a God. We all know that the Pharaoh was seen as a God, but that in reality he was a man is known to everyone. This conception is called “eumerism”.The first son of Poseidon and Clitus, Atlas, the first of 5 pairs of twins (10 brothers in total) took the official title of First King of Atlantis, and he took possession of Sulcis in present-day Sardinia. This is why in ancient times they called the volcanic mountains of Sulcis with the name of the Atlas Mountains.
Therefore, when in ancient times it was stated that the Garden of the Hesperides was located between the “Atlas Mountains” and the Atlantic Ocean (Paleolithic, i.e. the Mediterranean Sea), the geographical location is perfect and correct: Golden Fruits of Capoterra in fact it is located between the Atlas Mountains and the Mediterranean, exactly where some ancient historians had placed it .
The mess occurred later, when the Atlantic Ocean was moved, as probably already reported before me by Professor Sergio Frau (2002), who questioned the original position of the Pillars of Hercules, hypothesizing that it was between Sicily and Tunisia, from which it can correctly be deduced that the Atlantic Ocean was approximately the Sea of Sardinia.
Teti was the eponym of the Sardinian city still called Teti today. Wild boar hunting therefore took place in Sardinia: this custom still exists. The entire mythological outline returns to its place, and everything that previously seemed like fairy tales takes on a plausible and more realistic outline.
The Hesperides islands and the Garden of the Hesperides
The Garden of the Hesperides bore golden fruits, and was located at the ends of the known earth; an analogy was found with the apparently mythological story of the Hesperides in Sardinian toponymy: in fact, there is a place called Fruttidoro, located in the town of Capoterra, in Sardinia. Capoterra, from the Sardinian Caputerra, then in Latin “Caput Terrae”, is the “cape of the Earth”, i.e. the extreme edge known in antiquity (Mesolithic/early Neolithic, around 11,600 years ago, to have an approximate but useful date to understanding), while the current location of Fruttidoro in Capoterra would be the legendary Garden of the Hesperides. This new discovery has not yet been counter-validated by scholars, nor have stratigraphies been carried out for the related counter-verification.atlantisfound.it, was the Mesolithic name of the sea that surrounded the island, then a Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean emerged land. The Hesperides Islands must therefore have been the archaic names with which Sardinia and Corsica were defined in the millennia following the semi-submergence of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block. Hesperidum Insulae, “The Evening Islands”, because at sunset, when the Greeks looked towards the west, sailing in that direction from their most remote position, i.e. with great probability the island of Ischia, they saw 2 distant islands, which today are known by the names of Sardinia and Corsica, and which are plateaus of emerged land of the semi-submerged Sardinian-Corsican geological block. The linguist and glottologist Massimo Pittau analyzed the location of the Garden of the Hesperides, presumably placing it in Sardinia and pointing out that it was still a legend; I, however, in my bold ignorance, go further and propose that it is not a legend, but a place that actually existed located in Fruttidoro di Capoterra, as stated in other terms by the myth. Obviously, a serious scholar should study all the toponymy of Capoterra and nearby places, to verify the oldest names that can be traced back and whether in the past they were called in other ways. In any case, a good analysis based on satellite archeology would be appropriate, to highlight very ancient settlements, Mesolithic or Neolithic, present on the site or UNDER the site (because with great probability they will now be submerged by the superimposed layers over the millennia).
ATLANTIS AS A HIGHLY DEVELOPED AND TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCED CIVILIZATION.
When Plato describes the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean block as a highly developed and technologically advanced civilization, this sentence must be read in the context in which the Sardinian Corso Atlantis existed, i.e. before its partial submergence in 9600 BC, i.e. approximately eleven thousand six hundred years ago. Many readers of Plato, however, when they read the phrase “highly developed and technologically advanced”, believe that Plato is referring to us who live in 2023 after Christ, so they believe that when we talk about a technologically advanced population, this must have laser beams , teleportation, supercomputers equipped with artificial super intelligences… This mistake is made not only by many readers, but also by directors and writers; for example, the Disney cartoon film entitled Atlantis – The Lost Empire, shows that the inhabitants of Atlantis would have technologies such as flying motorcycles, with a system that appears to be anti-gravitational. The Sardinian Corsican Atlantean theory instead states that the Atlantean population, which in particular populated the paleocoasts of the Sardinian Corsican block, today called by science with the name of “submerged Sardinian-Corsican continental platform”, was technologically advanced compared to the other populations of its time, i.e. those contemporary with her and who lived in the period prior to 11,600 (eleven thousand and six hundred) years ago.
To give a clear example: on the Carro_(transport) page of Wikipedia, we read that “The first cart confirmed in Mesopotamian documents therefore dates back to 3000 BC, found in a bas-relief in Ur called the chariot of the felines, in which the chariot appeared consisting of solid three-sector wheels, with integral axle and wheel and a pin fixed to a frame, which in the case of hearses reached the size of 50 cm by 65 cm”. But in Plato’s descriptions, Atlantis had war chariots even before its submergence in 9600 BC. According to my Sardinian Corsican Atlantean theory, this is what “technologically advanced” means. The Atlanteans were experts in canalization, in making irrigation canals. This was advanced technology, compared to many other peoples, according to Plato, in 9600 BC and even before the sinking.
The mass media, unfortunately, and many occultists who have dealt with the topic of Atlantis, have unfortunately contributed to inserting chaotic and confusing elements into the search for the submerged island, so even today many people expect that in Atlantis there are futuristic technologies even for us today, but this is simply a logical error of reasoning.
ANALYSIS OF THEORIES ABOUT ATLANTIS THAT CONTRADICT MY THEORY
I cannot ignore the other interpretations of Plato and the historical and geographical evidence that contradicts my hypothesis: therefore in this section I will deal with precisely this, that is, analyzing the individual theories one by one and trying to show the weak and strong points of each rereading them under the light of my peculiar interpretation. To do this, I will use the texts of the various authors and I will try to dismantle them piece by piece. This is not what I would like to do in life, but unfortunately I have to because I want to speed up the process of recognizing my potential discoveries.
In the Temple of Edfu the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean island, currently semi-submerged, is also called “The Primordial Island”, “Island of the Egg”, “Island of Trampling”, “Island of combat”, “Island of Peace”; it is located in the “Eternal Lake” (the Eternal Lake is today called the Mediterranean Sea). The texts of Timaeus and Critias state things very similar to those written in hieroglyphics in the Temple of Edfu, using different words and circumlocutions. By combining this information together, it is possible to obtain new information on the currently semi-submerged Sardinian-Atlantean geological block.
Atlantis is the name given by the Egyptians to the semi-submerged Sardinian-Corsican geological block when it was emerged land, before its submergence/sinking around 9600 BC . It is actually semi-submerged, as the Platonic historical tale of Atlantis narrates, but two plateaus remained out of the water, and our civilization gave them the names “Sardinia” and “Corsica” . The “elephant species” was present there, as Plato says, in fact there was the Mammuthus Lamarmorae .
The currently semi-submerged Sardo Corso Atlantide was the largest of all the islands; it was located in the center of the current Mediterranean, which was then called the Sea of Atlantis, i.e. the Atlantic Ocean, called in later times by many names, among which the Egyptians used “The Great Green”, “The Eternal Lake” to name a few. It was very rich in forests, and this is still true and valid. The climate was particularly mild, and this too is still true today: in fact the sea has functions similar to those of a condenser in an electrical circuit: it dampens the hot climate by partially absorbing it, and mitigates the cold climates by releasing the previously accumulated heat. It was rich in minerals, and this is still true today, we can therefore imagine what the Sardinian-Corsican block must have been like over 11,600 years ago.
It was ancient for the ancients, and we have an infinite amount of proof: geology teaches us that Sardinian rocks are over half a billion years old. The builders of the towers lived there, and we know this for sure, so much so that one era was even defined as “nuragic”, and studied quite extensively, such as to provide a lot of valid scientific documentation. It must have been located beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and this also seems to be correct, after the findings I made in El Haouaria Bank and Birsa Bank.
How can we explain the fact that Plato describes Atlantis as a circular island with a navigable canal in the center and a series of concentric rings of land and water, while the Sardinian-Corsican block has an irregular shape and does not present these characteristics? Because the ring description does not concern the entire Corsican Atlantean Sardinian block, but only the capital of Atlantis, the current Sulcis. As I previously explained, in Sulcis there is an almost circular structure, of the dimensions indicated by Plato, but after eleven thousand six hundred years of rains, flooding, tectonic peaks caused by the graben-horst structure of Sulcis, and tectonic peaks caused by the Sinkholes of Sulcis, have meant that these portions of land, which present the very ancient structures reported by Plato, such as the Temple of Poseidon, they have moved from their original position. Therefore a serious and rigorous stratigraphic investigation is needed. I am neither an archaeologist, nor a stratigrapher, nor a geologist, and therefore I am not able to personally deal with this analysis. However, I believe I have provided a potentially important contribution to research with all this information.
There is evidence of contact between the Egyptians and the inhabitants of the Atlantean plateau called Sardinia: in fact, there are at least around 300 archaeological finds that scholars define as “Egyptizing” . In recent days, an agreement has been signed by the Director Luana Toniolo and the Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Museum Foundation in Turin, Christian Greco, for the study and analysis of these finds.
POSSIBILITY OF THE FINDING OF ANCIENT ATHENS FROM 9600 BC
On the submerged carbonate continental shelf Iblea Sicily-Malta , flanked by the Sicily-Malta Escarpment , Dr. Luigi Usai (the writer) has found a perfectly rectangular structure on what appear to be the Mesolithic paleocoasts of currently submerged eastern Sicily. Upon closer analysis, it was possible to ascertain the presence of structures with perfectly geometric shapes, which appear to be of anthropic nature. More studies are needed for understanding; however, it is already possible to consult online images of this possible archaeological find.
Video of the potential discovery:
HYPOTHESIS ON THE FIRST ATHENS SUBMERGED AROUND 9600 BC TOGETHER WITH ATLANTIS
If what Plato said about Atlantis is truly a historical event, as stated in Timaeus and Critias, then it could be hypothesized that this is the first Athens, submerged in 9600 BC. If this turns out to be true, everything Plato said has an objective basis in the real world. Of course it would be very strange for the First Athens to be based in Sicily. The important point to underline is that there seems to be a lot of objective evidence: bathymetry is a Science. Therefore bathymetric maps are also part of the tools that can be used by the scientific method. Some scholars have pointed out that “artifacts” sometimes appear on the seabed, caused by poor data acquisition. However, after about 20 years in the IT sector, I have sufficient knowledge to establish that the possibility that these are erroneous artifacts is extremely low, otherwise I would have had to find rectangles in other parts of the world, which has never happened, not even by exploring the seabed all over the world for two years consecutive approximately. The submerged rectangle is also present in a point that appears to be a Mesolithic paleocoast, so it is even more likely that it is a truly existing anthropic structure. Additionally, the resolution has changed and improved over the past year. If it were an artifact, the new detections should have erased the error and overwritten it with the correct data, but this has not happened so far. not even exploring the seabed around the world for about two consecutive years. The submerged rectangle is also present in a point that appears to be a Mesolithic paleocoast, so it is even more likely that it is a truly existing anthropic structure. Additionally, the resolution has changed and improved over the past year. If it were an artifact, the new detections should have erased the error and overwritten it with the correct data, but this has not happened so far. not even exploring the seabed around the world for about two consecutive years. The submerged rectangle is also present in a point that appears to be a Mesolithic paleocoast, so it is even more likely that it is a truly existing anthropic structure. Additionally, the resolution has changed and improved over the past year. If it were an artifact, the new detections should have erased the error and overwritten it with the correct data, but this has not happened so far.
TOPONOMASTIC AND ONOMASTIC
In the Sardinian-Corsican block the toponymy, very useful to archaeologists, clearly recalls the sources of hot and cold water placed according to the Platonic story on the Island of Atlantis by Poseidon: there are hamlets of towns called “Acquacadda” (Hot Water , in Sarda Campidanese ), S’acqua callenti de basciu (The Hot Water Below, in Sardinian Campidanese) and S’Acqua Callenti de Susu (The Hot Water Above, in Sardinian Campidanese dialect), while in the nearby town of Siliqua it is the cold water source of Zinnigas is still present today; in Siliqua the ” Acquafredda Castle ” is all that remains of the medieval citadel of Acquafredda. In short, even the toponymy recalls the Platonic myth. Furthermore, Solon heard the tale in the Egyptian city of Sais , and Sais is also the name of a geographical fraction near Narcao: locality of Is Sais lower and Is Sais upper of Narcao (SU), in Sulcis in present-day Sardinia; it is also a Sardinian surname . The toponymy appears again in an apparently correct manner, and precisely in the same geographical points (Sulcis, in present-day Sardinia) where the toponymy recalls the sources placed by Poseidon. And curiously, still in Sulcis, there is a place called Piscinas … another toponymy that recalls the theme of water or flooding. While in relation to Egyptian toponymy, we find a location called “Terresoli ” (Land of the Sun, in Sardinian Campidanese dialect) which reminds us very closely of Heliopolis (City of the Sun). Since Sulcis “s’esti furriau”, they called a hamlet “ Furriadroxiu ”; since many people died or were seriously injured, they called it “ Spistiddatroxiu “. In Sardinia we have Olbia , and Olbia also exists in ancient Egypt . At this point it is still difficult to prove, but the town of Sinnai in Sardinia could turn out to be related to Sinai in Egypt: this statement remains to be demonstrated, but now it no longer seems to be a matter of coincidences: in-depth sector studies are needed. Carnac in France is famous for its megaliths, as is Karnak in Egypt. The name of the city is the same, but the phonetics are expressed with different consonant values, where K and C have the same semantic meaning, but different spellings.
We have seen the surname Sais , but the surname Usai is also interesting: the Usai Mummy exists in Bologna , which demonstrates the contacts between the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean population and ancient Egypt. In fact, Usai is an exclusively Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean surname: throughout the world, those called Usai are of Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean origins . So we have the presence of Sardinian-Corsican surnames in Ancient Egypt, and this should give us pause. Furthermore, an engraving of an Egyptian vessel was found in the Necropolis of Montessu in Santadi , Sulcis. This further confirms the relationships between Egypt and the Sulcis of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean geological block .Uras is a Sardinian surname and a Sardinian town . Together with the Usai Mummy, in Bologna, there are rooms with bronzes, and all Sardinians are familiar with the Nuragic bronzes . Abis is a Sardinian surname, Abis is a toponym from ancient Egypt. Olbia is a Sardinian city, Olbia is a city in Egypt. Uras is a Sardinian surname, Urasit is a Sardinian location, and contains the theme of “Uranus”, which could be related to Poseidon. Toponymy and Onomastics, therefore, confirm the Platonic myth and also the relationships with the Egyptians. The Egyptian finds are also found in other places in Sardinia, but here, at the moment we will remain focused on the Atlantean theme.
3207 Sardinian toponyms begin with Funt (“funti” or “funtana” in Sardinian means “fountain” in Italian).
Sardinian surnames which are also names of towns, cities and geographical locations.
Before reading this article, it is good to study the excellent article on the page:
which allows a broad vision of Sardinian surnames and which may suggest a Paleolithic or Neolithic birth of these surnames.
The island of Atlantis is described as “rich in waters ”. I thought, point blank, of looking for Sardinian toponyms that contain the word Funt (in Sardinian a “Fonte” can be called “Funtana”).
To the page:
there are 3 text entry fields: Toponym, Municipality and Type.
Under Toponym I inserted the letters Funt, in such a way as to obtain all the words that begin in this way; they are usually words like Funti or Funtana, or source, in Sardinian Campidanese.
You get 3207 toponyms in this way, without doing any other search. I would say that 3207 toponyms, 11,000 years after the sinking of Atlantis, can already be a good guarantee of the truthfulness of what Plato stated in Timaeus and Critias, on the fact that the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean block was “rich in water”: Sassari , Thatari and Serramanna, 3 other toponyms, mean “rich in water” (see the works of Professor Salvatore Dedola in this regard).
In the Sardinian-Corsican block the toponymy, very useful to archaeologists, clearly recalls the sources of hot and cold water placed according to the Platonic story on the Island of Atlantis by Poseidon: there are hamlets of towns called “Acquacadda” (Hot Water , in Sarda Campidanese ), S’acqua callenti de basciu (The Hot Water Below, in Sardinian Campidanese) and S’Acqua Callenti de Susu (The Hot Water Above, in Sardinian Campidanese dialect), while in the nearby town of Siliqua it is the cold water source of Zinnigas is still present today; in Siliqua the “ Acquafredda Castle ”. In short, even the toponymy recalls the Platonic myth. Furthermore, Solon heard the tale in the Egyptian city of Sais , and Sais is a Sardinian surname, and Sardinia is an emerging plateau of the submerged Corsican Sardinian geological block, so everything still fits perfectly. Sais , in addition to being a surname belonging to the Sardinian-Corsican territory, is also the name of a geographical fraction near Narcao: the locality of Is Sais Inferiore and Is Sais Superiore of Narcao (SU), in Sulcis in present-day Sardinia . The toponymy appears again in an apparently correct manner, and precisely in the same geographical points (Sulcis, in present-day Sardinia) where the toponymy recalls the sources placed by Poseidon. And curiously, still in Sulcis, there is a place called Piscinas (it can also be understood in Italian)… another toponymy that recalls the theme of water or flooding. While in relation to Egyptian toponymy, we find a place called ” Terresoli ” (Land of the Sun, in Campidanese Sardinian dialect) which reminds us very closely of Heliopolis (City of the Sun). Since Sulcis “s’esti furriau”, they called a hamlet “ Furriadroxiu ”; since many people died or were seriously injured, they called it “ Spistiddatroxiu “. Near Barbusi, near Carbonia in Sardinia, there is Acqua Callentis (hot water in Sardinian) and Caput Acquas. Furthermore, there is a hamlet called Su Peppi Mereu and there are Egyptian pharaohs called Pepi I and Pepi II (in Sardinian Pepi is the diminutive of Giuseppe) .
Mandas is a Sardinian surname and a Sardinian locality.
Nora is a Sardinian place and Nora is a female name .
Lidia is a locality and Lidia is a female name ( Lidia (endonym: Śfard; in Greek: Λυδία; in Assyrian: Luddu; in Hebrew: Lûdîm) is an ancient historical region, i.e. a locality)
further confirmation of my statements : the city of Sardis or Sardis or Sardes (in Lydian 𐤳𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 , transliterated Sfard ; ancient Greek Σάρδεις , transliterated Sárdeis ; ancient Persian Sparda ) was an ancient city in Asia Minor (now Turkey ) that became the capital of the kingdom of Lydia in the 7th century BC
. I repeat: the city of Sardis became the capital of Lydia.
Solinas is a Sardinian surname and a location: Is Solinas beach.
Solanas is a Sardinian town and a surname, this time Spanish, probably indicating Sardinian migrations to Spain in ancient times.
Tunis is a Sardinian surname and is a locality ( Tunis, in Tunisia ).
Zara is a Sardinian surname and is a locality ( Zara in Croatia ).
Olianas it is a Sardinian surname and Oliena is a Sardinian town, which in Sardinian is called Oliana .
Ruggiu is a Sardinian surname and Monte Ruggiu is a locality.
Scano is a Sardinian surname, Scano Montiferru is a locality.
Pirastru is a Sardinian surname, Porto Pirastru is a locality.
Mattana is a Sardinian surname , Mattan I and Mattan II are Phoenician rulers.
Milia is a Sardinian surname and El Milia is a location in Algeria and Miliana a location in Algeria.
Iunius Silanus is a surname and Silanus is a Sardinian town that still exists; then there is a strange similarity between the etymology of Silanus (a Sardinian village whose etymology means: woodland, of the woods) and the mythological figure of Silenus (taken from Wikipedia –> The Sileni (also Silenoi ) are figures of Greek mythology, divinities minors of the woods, of a wild and lascivious nature -> they were probably the Sardinians who inhabited Silanus, from which they took their name).
Siddi is a Sardinian surname and Siddi is a place in Sardinia.
Murgia is a Sardinian surname and “Le Murge” is an Appulo-Lucanian subregion .
Sanna it is a Sardinian surname and Sannio is an ancient historical locality and the Samnites were the people who inhabited it: however this could be a coincidence. However, all these strange “coincidences” must lead us to make new analyses, to rethink the past and to try to motivate these strange dozens and dozens and dozens of coincidences.
Given all these premises, it is not difficult to realize that:
Troia is a surname, Troja is a surname, and Troia is a town in the province of Foggia and Troia is the famous mythological city… at this point one would assume that Troia was a Sardinian-Corsican city . The walls of Troy, built in concentric circles, also confirm this hypothesis; comes the fact that the Sardinian Ilenses Troes exist and the other name of Troy is Ilio ( Troes-Ilienses are a Sardinian tribe )…
Another anomaly to keep in mind is the presence of:
Another toponymic anomaly: the presence of Biddanoa (Bidda noa means, in Sardinian, New City or New Country, Villanuova or Villanova , in the Sardinian language); and the strange insistence of the term translated Villanova wherever there are contacts with the Sardinian culture:
the Villanovan Culture it is a facies that gave rise to the Etruscans, it takes its name from the town of Villanova; according to my theory, the Villanovans were very ancient Sardinian-Corsican migrations, which is why a Nuragic bronze was later found at the bottom of Lake Bolsena inside a submerged Villanovian house; in Cagliari the Villanova district, but it could be a coincidence, because if I’m not mistaken the nomenclature has medieval origins and I don’t know why it was called that; in Villanova di Guidonia (Rome) there is the Maritime Theater of Hadrian, known as Villa Adriana: it is built in concentric circles like the capital of Atlantis, right in a place called Villanova; in Sardinia there was a Neapolis, in the Oristano area, and Neapolis is the name of Naples, and Nea Polis means new city, in the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean style.
Other linguistic oddities: the insistent Sardinian-Corsican use of diphthongs in toponymy:
with the diphthong “ei” : Orosei, Baunei, Bultei, Burcei, Furtei, Gergei, Urzulei, Lanusei, Lei, Musei, Pauli Arbarei, Pèifugas, Costa Rei, San Niccolò Gerrei, Triei, Mara Arbarèi all places that end with the diphthong “ei” ”;
with the diphthong “ai” : Allai, Paizé, Gairu, Ollollai, Illorai, Lotzorai, Masainas, Olzai, Onifai, Samatzai, Ulassai, Ussassai, La Trinitài and Vignola, Villagrande Strisaili;
with the diphthong “oi” : Gavoi, Jaròi/Geràni, Loiri Porto San Paolo, Mammoiada;
with the diphthong “au” : Ardauli, Austis, Ballau, Bauladu, Baunei, Giaùni/Jaùni, Lòiri Poltu Santu Pàulu, Paùli, Narcàu, Lu Palàu, Paùli Arbarèi, Pàu, Pàulle, Paùli Gerrèi/Pàùli Xrexèi, Santu Sparàu, Tempio Pausania ,
Gonnos fanadiga, Gonnos nò, Gonnos codina, Gonnos tramatza, all places that contain the suffix Gonnos;
Some of these facts could be coincidences.
Warning: this site contains experimental research by a non-professional, so there may be logical or methodological errors in the research. Scientists will be able to skim errors from correct information. What matters is the possible useful information that can derive from it.
Names of cities/towns/hamlets that need to be analyzed more seriously:
Teulada in Sardinia corresponds to Teulada in Spain
Aritzo in Sardinia corresponds to Aritzu in the Basque country
Monastir in Sardinia corresponds to Monastir in Tunisia
Orani in Sardinia corresponds to Orano in Algeria
Pula in Sardinia corresponds to Pula in the former Yugoslavia
Palau in Sardinia corresponds to Palau , province of Lleida in Spain, and Palau in Micronesia
Sa Baronia in Sardinia corresponds to La Baronia de Rialb , 25747, Province of Lleida, Spain; but it also corresponds to Sa Baronia located in the Sierra de Tramuntana , declared a World Heritage Site, just 25 km from Palma de Mallorca.
Tethys in Sardinia corresponds to the Tethys Sea, the Titan Tethys son of Uranus and Gaia and a Pharaoh called Tethys
Sa Portedda in Sulcis corresponds to La Portella in Catalonia, Spain
Memphis in Sicily corresponds to a second Memphis in Sicily and a Memphis in Egypt
Amarnas in Algeria corresponds to Amarna in Egypt, the modern name of Akhetaton, city of Akhenaten
to Gadeiros , brother of the Sulcitan Atlas and son of Poseidon and Clitus, corresponds Gadir (Cadiz) corresponds Gadir in Morocco, Agadir in Morocco, Port of Gadir in Pantelleria, Bay of Ghadira in Malta; furthermore, now we understand why Plato speaks of the Gadirica region in front of the Pillars of Hercules: Gadirica was probably the region near the current Villasimius , but this remains to be verified
Cariddi in Sardinia corresponds to Cariddi in Sicily
Pompu corresponds to Pompeii in Italy and Pohnpei in Micronesia
Umbria in Italy corresponds to the Kingdom of Northumbria in England
Anglona in Sardinia corresponds to Anglia and Angleterre , land of the Angles
Gallura corresponds to Gaul, Gallipoli, Wales and the surname Gallus (probably many are just linguistic coincidences; however it is worth investigating and perhaps disproving these similarities in a scientific way )
Bithinia corresponds to Bithia
Olbia in Sardinia corresponded to Olbia in Egypt and is mentioned in ancient history books
Alguier (Alghero) corresponds to Algiers
Bari corresponds to Bari Sardo in Sardinia
Meana corresponds to Meana Sardo in Sardinia
Prato corresponds to Prato Sardo in Sardinia
Riola corresponds to Riola Sardo in Sardinia
Neapolis (in Greek: Νεάπολις; in Sardinian: Nabui) or “new city”, was an ancient city in Sardinia corresponds to Neapolis, the ancient name of Naples in Italy
to the locality Tempio- Ampurias , Ampurias Beach , corresponds in Spain to Empúries , 17130, Province of Girona, Spain, called Ampurias in Spanish .
the French locality Pau corresponds to the surname Pau , very frequent and perhaps originating from Sulcis ; someone might even go so far as to notice that, while in the French language the diphthong “au” is read “o”, and therefore Pau in French is read “Pò”, there is an Occitan pronunciation, which as present in Wikipedia under the entry Pau_(France ) , is pronounced exactly Pau, as in the Sardinian language , at least partially confirming my statements. It would be interesting to do a study on Occitan, to see if there could be connections with the languages and dialects of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block, as also happens with the Corsican, Basque, Sicilian, Romanian and many others;
Caria is a Sardinian surname which corresponds to Caria , which was a historical region in western Anatolia;
Solanas is a Sardinian town and Solanas is both a Sardinian and Spanish surname :
Solanas is a Spanish surname . Notable people with the surname include:
- Alberto Solanas (born 1995), Spanish athlete
- Fernando Solanas (1936–2020), Argentine director
- Ignacio Martín Solanas (born 1962), Spanish footballer
- Juan Diego Solanas (born 1966), Argentine director
- Valerie Solanas (1936–1988), American feminist
(taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solanas_(surname) )
perhaps these are not coincidences. It is first necessary to go back to the first original toponyms, to understand if they have been changed recently or if they are ancient or the original ones. I propose to study these correspondences: whether the name has to do with a sort of direct domination, colonization or relationship of some kind has yet to be officially demonstrated with more robust evidence.
We have seen the surname Sais , the surname Pau , but the surname Usai is also interesting: the Usai Mummy exists in Bologna , which demonstrates the contacts between the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean population and ancient Egypt. In fact, Usai is an exclusively Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean surname: throughout the world, those called Usai are of Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean origins . Uras is a Sardinian surname, Sardinian country and Sumerian deity. Cabras is a Sardinian surname, Cabras is a Sardinian town and in Cabras they found the Giants of Mont’E Prama, and ” cabras” in Sardinian means “goats”, which is a term that probably originated in the Paleolithic or Neolithic, as goats definitely marked the transition from hunters to breeders and farmers. Sinis is a surname and Sinis is a location. Piras is a surname and Piras is a locality . With the Usai mummy we have the presence of Sardinian-Corsican surnames in Ancient Egypt, and this should give us pause. It is difficult to explain in a few words, I will do it in another context: the Sumerians, the Akkadians and the Babylonians, with very high probability, were Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean migrations in times that scientists will now have to recalculate based on new discoveries. It will be difficult and wonderful, having to go through all the lyrics again and try to find our way around. However, I can give you some insights: there are probably links between the Sardinian surname Cadelanu , Candelanu and Kandalanu , a Neo-Babylonian king; between the town of Sarroch in Sardinia and Dur- Šarrukin of Nineveh; these discoveries open the doors to a new type of approach to Sumerian and Mesopotamian culture in general. The gods of Sumerian mythology were miners … and Sulcis itself has the oldest mine in Italy and perhaps in Europe: if it still provides resources now, what must it have been like 11,000 years ago?
Now: if a scientist had serious intentions, he could, starting from my observations, do further research. In this way, little by little, perhaps it will come out that the Pharaoh Teti of the VI dynasty who reigned in Egypt came out of the city of Teti in Sardinia … Perhaps we will realize that two Pharaohs are called Pepi I and Pepi II: but Pepi or Peppi in Sardinia it is the diminutive of Giuseppi , i.e. Giuseppe (it may be a simple coincidence) . Even today in Sardinia people called Giuseppe are nicknamed Pepi to demonstrate affection, familiarity and friendship.
You might realize that the Sardinian Corsican Atlanteans often assigned the same name to various cities, so we have two places called Memphis in Sicily and we have ancient Memphis in Egypt … we have Akrotiri in Cyprus and Akrotiri in Santorini ; Gadir (Cadiz) in Spain has the equivalent Port of Gadir in Pantelleria, and Gadir and Agadir in Morocco , because the names of some villages and port locations are Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean. It would explain why Umbria exists and the Kingdom of Northumbria exists in England. Murgia is a Sardinian surname and “ le Murgie or la Murgia ” is an Italian locality.
Doing this type of research takes time and patience, it is not an easy thing. But I hope I have given you excellent starting input, which can make your work easier.
Here are some examples that could open up new, totally innovative research ideas that, I believe, have perhaps never been explored before:
- Sardi Maurreddus of Maurreddanìa in Mauretania and in Mauritania;
- Sardinian Maltamonenses from Malta;
- Sardinian Galillenses in Galilee; in this regard, see the article present here ; the commentary by Bartolomeo Porcheddu ; it is now also known to archaeologists that an entire Sardinian city dating back to at least between the 12th and 11th centuries BC was discovered and unearthed on Mount Carmel;
- Sardinian Patuanenses Campani in Campania;
- Sardinian Beronicenses seem connected with the Veronicenses then Veronienses, passing through Etruscan Tuscany;
- Sardinian Ilienses-Troes seem to be the founders of Ilium-Troia , which is why Ilium, i.e. the city of Troy, was created using concentric circles. They represented the Sacred Furrows of Sulcis (Sulcus, Sulci, Latin ablative locative in Sulcis, to be translated as “The place of the Furrows” [Traced by Poseidon around the hill where his wife Clitus lived]);
- Sardinians from Gallura appear to be connected with Gaul ;
- The Sardinian Balares were probably the rulers of the Baleares ( Balearic Islands );
- The Sardinians of Laconi owned Laconia in Greece;
- Furthermore, the Sumerian and Mesopotamian religions are full of Sardinian terms, surnames and names : this fact should give pause for thought.
Uras, Sardinian surname, name of a Sumerian deity;
Kadelanu, a Sardinian surname, becomes the name of a Mesopotamian King Kandelanu;
Sarroch, name of country, becomes King Sarrukkin in Mesopotamia;
S’iskuru, a Sardinian way of saying, in Mesopotamia is the god Iskur;
Samassi, a Sardinian town, is the Sumerian god Samas;
Uta, a Sardinian village, is the god Utu;
Sinnai, a Sardinian village, is the Mesopotamian god Sin-Nanna;
Maybe we should start asking ourselves a thousand questions from new points of view.
In my opinion, a total revision of the historical, geographical, geological, commercial and construction sources is now necessary… from my point of view, an immediate and decisive paradigm shift is necessary: the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean Paradigm .
Another strangeness of Sardinian surnames : they seem to be very ancient and have a deictic function , suffice it to say that some are “Pani” and “Casu”, “bread” and “cheese” ; “Boi” ox ; and the bull was sacred to the Atlanteans. This too could be a research lead: perhaps the surnames were born in the Paleolithic or Neolithic in the Sardinian-Corsican geological block? This could explain why many currently existing surnames ideophonically represent concepts: bread, cheese, ox, crow ( Pani, Casu, Boi, Crobu ), with a 1:1 relationship with reality, i.e. each surname corresponds to a real existing object .
Isis is the mother of Horus (Horus, Gold) in Egyptian mythology. In Sardinia, the locality Isidoro (Isis + Gold) is present right in Sulcis, a terminology that had religious value. With the advent of the Christian religion, in an attempt to convert the Sardinians to the new religion, everything possible was done to bring these terms back to Christianity, so the archaic terminology Isidore began to be associated with the figure of a saint, Sant’ Isidore. Now this passage can be very clear to the reader’s eyes.
In fact, in Sardinia, very ancient representations of Isis and Gold (Horo, Horus) have been found, which archaeologists have generally always brought back to Egyptian culture, overturning the real facts, as I will try to show in all the reasoning on this website. Isis and Horus were figures of Sulcis, taught in Mesolithic and Neolithic times to the Egyptians. This would explain the cult of Isis in Spain, in Pompeii, in Rome… what was the point of venerating only one divinity from the Egyptian Pantheon? Very simple: the goddess was a deity of Sulcis as the Atlantean capital, and the cult was widespread throughout the Mediterranean; However, Egypt also preserved many other aspects of the cult taught and handed down by the Sardinian Atlanteans, for which Isis was only one of the ancient divinities.
08 April 2023, 06:32
A few minutes ago I realized that French also behaves like Sardinian, at least in one case:
Samzun is a surname, and it is also a place where there is a prehistoric megalithic circle, precisely on what I hypothesize to be the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean routes that allowed the spread of megalithism across the European coasts in particular. It is necessary to do research to understand if and which surnames exist in France that are also toponyms.
The cult of the bull remains in the names, yet to be verified, of Gioia Tauro and Taurianova .
The Hesperides Islands and the Garden of the Hesperides
After the semi-submergence of the Corsican Atlantean Sardinian block, only the mountainous areas of the island of Atlantis remained above water, and were interpreted as two islands. But thousands of years had to pass before they were called Sardinia and Corsica. At first they were called the Hesperides Islands, where there was a garden of golden fruits, called the Garden of the Hesperides.
The extreme end of the world was called Caput Terrae, Capoterra in present-day Sardinia.
In Capoterra there was the Garden of the Hesperides, which had golden fruits: it is not clear to the writer whether these golden fruits were lemons, or yellow apples or who knows what other gold-colored fruit. This time too, the Atlantean Corsican Sardinian toponymy comes to our aid: in Capoterra, in the province of Cagliari, there is a place still called Frutti d’Oro today.
It is difficult to explain in a few words, I will do it in another context: the Sumerians, the Akkadians and the Babylonians , with very high probability, were Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean migrations in times that scientists will now have to recalculate based on new discoveries. It will be difficult and wonderful, having to go through all the texts again and try to find your way around. However, I can give you some insights: there are probably links between the Sardinian surname Cadelanu , Candelanu and Kandalanu, a Neo-Babylonian king ; between the town of Sarroch in Sardinia and Dur- Šarrukinof Nineveh; these discoveries open the doors to a new type of approach to Sumerian and Mesopotamian culture in general.
Atlantis was larger than Libya and Asia combined: now, by inverse procedure, we can deduce the size of these two geographical realities in around 9600 BC. The people who advanced boldly and wanted to conquer all the peoples who lived beyond the Pillars of Hercules, therefore, were the Sardo Corso Atlanteans who inhabited the Sardo Corso geological block when it was still dry land, before the submersion in around 9600 BC. The whole of Sulcis (Sulcis is a geographical area of lower Sardinia, west of Cagliari) is very rich in Atlantean toponymy: Acquacadda ,Acquafredda (city that disappeared in the Middle Ages), Castello di Acquafredda , S’Acqua Callenti de Susu , S’Acqua Callenti de Baxiu , Acqua Callentis (another hamlet meaning Hot Water ), over three thousand two hundred Sardinian toponyms just by searching for the portion of the word ” funt” (“funti” or “fonti” means “source” in at least one of the variants of Sardinian). It is possible to counter-verify my statements with Google Maps and with the Sardinian database of regional toponyms, as well as in the ways you deem appropriate.
In fact, Plato narrates that the island of Atlantis was rich in water. And in fact the world-renowned Sardinian linguist Salvatore Dedola (a supergenius that you will absolutely have to study in depth, together with Bartolomeo Porcheddu, another extraordinary scholar ) shows that Sassari, Thatari (Sardinian name for Sassari) and Serramanna, to give just one example, mean “Rich in Water”. Toponymy and onomastics confirm the Platonic myth. It will be necessary to open sector studies to bring new information to that which has so far been collected and demonstrated, and it is necessary that they be carried out by professionals in the sector.
SARDINIAN ODDITIES OF ATLANTIDEE COURSE
Regarding the Gadirica area, it is possible that it was the name not of Gadir (Cadiz), but of a geographical area of the same name in the Sardinian-Corsican block, now submerged. Why would he have the same name as Gadir? For the same reason why Teulada in Sardinia has the equivalent Teulada in Spain ; Pula has a Pula in Dalmatia ; Aritzo in Sardinia corresponds to Aritzu in Spain ; Monastir in Sardinia corresponds to Monastir in Tunisia , Alguier (Alghero) corresponds to Algiers in Algeria , the Su Vaticanu district of Santadi corresponds to the Vatican in Rome , Pompu in Sardinia corresponds to Pompeii , Bari corresponds to Bari Sardo, and I could go on and on, but I would risk boring you. For this reason, Gadir della Gadirica, in the Sardinian-Corsican geological block, would correspond to Gadir (i.e. Cadiz) .
Taking the major diagonal that cuts the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block, we obtain that it measures approximately 555 kilometres; this measurement appears, calculated in stages, in the measurements provided by Critias to describe the island. If we exclude “the band of mountains that fall directly onto the sea” (i.e. the mountains now present in Corsica and the right side of Sardinia such as the Gennargentu), measuring the rectangular perimeter of the remaining territory currently semi-submerged, it is greater than 10,000 stages exactly as stated by Plato. It is therefore possible that the Scientific Community will carry out independent measurements to verify the veracity of these statements.
THE TIMEUS DOES NOT ONLY TALK ABOUT ASTRONOMY, BUT ALSO ABOUT GEOLOGY
To summarize for clarity: the priests of the city of Sais in Egypt were trying, in their own way, to explain to Solon a geological event of submergence of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block in the center of the Mediterranean, a sea which in 9600 BC was called the Atlantic Ocean or Atlantic (it took its name from the island of Atlantis, the largest of all before it ended up half-submerged). Atlantis was therefore even larger than Sicily, which now, after its sinking, appears to be the largest island, and not Sardinia.
Therefore the period of the sinking would be around, approximately, 9600 BC, unlike the hypothesis of the Sardinian Nuragic Atlantis, which is clearly incorrect also for the reasons listed elsewhere by Sardinian archaeologists .
Stratigraphic analyzes must go into the ground until finding the remains from around 11,600 years ago, in order to find the remains of the “capital” of Atlantis or its population, and it is also very clear why no bodies of the deceased Atlanteans have been found in the nuragic layers.
COLUMNS OF HERCULES IN THE CHANNEL OF SICILY: NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDINGS
Frau (2002), whom I sincerely thank for his extraordinary contributions to the discipline, places the Pillars of Hercules between Sicily and Tunisia . In fact, there is a possibility that these have been found. In fact, the Scientific Community around the world is in the process of analyzing the very recent discovery of what appear to be anthropic structures located right in the Strait of Sicily, found through bathymetric analyzes of the Emodnet System of the European Union , in Birsa Bank and El Haouaria Bank , exactly between Sicily and Tunisia, and a short distance from Pantelleria. A second anomalous discovery from a bathymetric point of view was made, ofa structure with an apparent rectangular shape in the Sicily-Malta continental carbonate platform , flanked by the Sicily-Malta Continental Scarp (Sicily-Malta Escarpment for geologists) .
The scientific world has not yet expressed its opinion on the matter ; it is not even known whether studies are being carried out on the matter. 5 computerized and independent bathymetric systems were used, programmed and managed independently, which returned the same results, which suggests that these structures really exist on the seabed. The cost of a shipment, however, is prohibitive for a single individual, and it will be necessary to wait for the intervention of third parties.
THE MUD AROUND THE ISLAND OF ATLANTIS
Why then was everything around the submerged Sardinian Corsican island full of mud that prevented navigation ? Because the sea currents, after the sinking of the Corsican Sardinian geological block, began to tear away layers of soil that emerged from the surface as Sardinia does now, creating over the millennia what geologists today call the Sardinian “continental platform”. race . As sea currents “washed” away layers of soil, destroying all the inhabited centers and structures that had been built before 9600 BC on the Sardinian-Corsican coastal strips, the water was clouded by muddy materials, and this is clear and obvious to thought and reflection.
In Atlantis “the oldest old people lived”, and we all know about the Corsican Sardinian centenarians , to the point that the Sardinian genetic code not only has been and is studied all over the world, but has even been stolen (see the theft of 25,000 test tubes with 17 under investigation, following the theft of the Sardinian DNA samples which according to the press occurred at the Genos Park in Perdasdefogu in August 2016). That the Sardinian-Corsican block is ancient for the ancients is obvious to educated scholars: it is enough to mention the discovery of a fragment of carapace of Arthropleura armata from the Carboniferous of Iglesias (PAS Museum – EA Martel of Carbonia) , but those interested can inquire at a paleontologist, one above all the extraordinary Daniel Zoboli.It is therefore obvious that the erudite Egyptians were able, from many details, to understand the antiquity of the Sardinian-Corsican block , which they called Atlantis .
The Temple of Horus in Edfu, Egypt: reinterpretation of the texts based on the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean paradigm
In Egypt, in the city of Edfu , there is a temple entirely covered in hieroglyphs. There are various translations, which are difficult to achieve also due to the content: in fact, in the majority of these texts the origin of civilization, the origin of the world, is narrated .
The Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean paradigm helps in deciphering these texts, helping to clarify the meaning of a good part of them; to understand better, however, it is necessary to provide the reader with some basic information which will then allow them to understand almost the entire text.
In the Temple of Edfu, the Mediterranean Sea is called “The Eternal Lake”, “The Eternal Lake” or “The Primordial Waters” . In the Eternal Lake there was an island that lay in the primordial waters, i.e. the Sardinian block when this was a single land that emerged, over 11,600 years ago, during the Pleistocene. This same island is called by Plato, in the dialogues entitled Timaeus and Critias, with the name of Atlantis. The historical narrative is the same, but some different terms are used to describe the same things. By combining the texts of Timaeus and Critias with the information carved in the Temple of Edfu, it is possible to obtain further information useful for understanding the prehistoric past of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean island and its relations with the ancient Egyptian world.
Edfu’s texts can be viewed at this address:
Since I didn’t know these texts, I will slowly begin to try to make them translatable by relying on all the information that has been provided to us by the Platonic texts and by new scientific discoveries of various kinds: archaeological, genetic, geographical, linguistic, etc.
For the analysis of hieroglyphic writing, I will make use of the typewriter available online here:
I will try to rewrite the Edfu texts trying to make them clearer for a contemporary citizen, replacing all the ancient terms with modern ones. For example, instead of “Eternal Lake” I will write “Mediterranean Sea”, instead of “Isola dell’Uovo” I will write “Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean semi-submerged island”, and so on.
The primordial world of the Gods is an island (in hieroglyph iw) partly covered by reeds, which lay in the darkness of the primordial waters of the Mediterranean, occupied by Mesolithic inhabitants whose DNA was analyzed in two out of three individuals from the rock shelter of Su Carroppu, in present-day Sardinia.
This population was considered divine, it is not yet clear why. Perhaps because they were culturally far ahead of the rest of the world’s population. They probably already knew some metallurgy in the Mesolithic (I still have to prove it) and this was perceived by other peoples as a divine characteristic. In fact, Nekhbet and other deities have the symbol of metallurgy in their paws, which in my opinion is also the symbol that the Egyptians used to indicate Sulcis or their origin from mining Sulcis. Among the creator gods, it seems that Ptah has a very important role. Now, at the moment it is still unclear whether this has anything to do with Poseidon. At present it is still difficult to understand, I am forced to study Egyptology to try to understand the possible connections. Some information can be found in the Shabaka Stone. The texts on creation are of the Heliopolitan or Hermopolitan type, from the respective cities in which the texts were found engraved on the walls. The first Egyptian pharaohs were probably inhabitants of the Sardinian block, that is, of what for the Egyptians was the Primordial Island or Egg Island. The priest who speaks to Solon in Timaeus and Critias, in fact, points out that at the beginning the Sardinian-Atlanteans had arrogantly attempted to invade the entire Mediterranean. Gobekli Tepe could be an Atlantean Sardinian colony before the submergence. The partial submergence of the island and the death of millions of inhabitants, and the destruction of many cities and works of art must have been a tremendous trauma for the Sardinian settlers in Turkey.
The myth continues: first it is Atum, the god who hovers over the waters; then appears the pyramid-shaped hill from which the sun originated, and Atum climbed it. Atum was bisexual; he cried, and the tears became men and women. He had a son, and Geb, the earth, male and lying down, and Nut, a woman clinging to him, were born. Atum made them separate from the air, Shu.
Atum hovering over the waters is then taken up by the Bible: “And the spirit hovered over the waters”, in Genesis, before creation. Geb and Nut had children: Isis, Osiris, Seth and Nephtys.
This is the myth of Heliopolis.
The Egyptian Creation Hermopolitana instead predicts that the sun was born from a mound. And in fact, around the world, there has been at least one civilization that has built a disproportionate quantity of mounds. Even in the United States. This should at least give pause for thought. Now, in Sulcis there is a structure made in this way, but I don’t know if it’s just a coincidence.
In short, all Platonic statements, if placed in the right context, are rational and correctly explainable. However, they require a certain mental humility, a certain “disposition to listen”. Since they are strong statements, which have consequences, they probably require a few months of reflection and meditation before they can be assimilated and digested correctly. On the other hand, it has been 2600 years (since the time of Solon) that no one understood what the island of Atlantis was, indeed, it was stated almost everywhere that Plato was exaggerating. Regarding the submergence/sinking of the Sardinian island of Corsican Atlantis , this would be a problem of a geological nature, where I can only make hypotheses. For example, there can be at least three concomitant causes: Meltwater Pulses, in particular the meltwater pulse 1b, also studied by NASA technicians. Furthermore, geological settlement movements due to what geology experts call “ slab roll-back ”. Furthermore, it has even been hypothesized, but still being verified, that a tectonic fault passes under the Sulcis, the same one that passes under Pompeii and Herculaneum, arrives under the Sulcis and continues up to Gibraltar . In possible support of the thesis that Atlantis is the partially submerged Sardinian-Corsican island and its currently submerged continental shelf, we highlight here some scientific evidence. On February 28, 2017, a study was published in the journal Scientific Reports of the Nature group which presents new archaeogenetic data. These data strengthen the archaeological evidence of the clear cultural discontinuity between the first inhabitants of the island, dating back to around 11 thousand years ago, and the architects of its definitive population which took place around 3000 years later, with the arrival of the first farmer-breeder settlers . This important discovery is based on the analysis of DNA extracted from the skeletal remains of two individuals buried in the prehistoric shelter of Su Carroppu di Sirri in Carbonia . At the moment, these remains represent the oldest evidence of human presence on the island. Now, from 9600 BC to today approximately 9600 + 2023 years have passed, i.e. 11623. The evidence cited above is precisely from 11000 years ago. A study was conducted on the clear cultural discontinuity between the first visitors to the island of Sardinia around 11,000 years ago and the architects of its stable and definitive population, which occurred around 3,000 years later with the arrival of the first farmer-breeder settlers. The study is based on the analysis of DNA extracted from the skeletal remains of two individuals buried in the prehistoric shelter of Su Carroppu di Sirri in Carbonia, which represent the oldest direct evidence of human presence on the island. The study is part of the research project financed by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia on the history of the first Neolithic settlement of the island. The obtained genetic sequences were compared with ancient and modern data and revealed a large difference in the genetic variability of the island’s current population compared to the first humans who frequented it, with most of the genetic variability appearing to have been determined by migratory flow of populations who introduced the productive economy starting from the most ancient Neolithic. The Mesolithic sequences of the Su Carroppu samples belong to the groups called J2b1 and I3, which have very low or low frequencies in Europe. The relevance of the scientific discovery stimulates the intensification of research in the key site of Su Carroppu, already investigated between the years 1960-1970 and currently the subject of systematic excavations directed by the University of Cagliari. Good research to all of you. If anyone is interested, the theory of Atlantis as the Sardinian-Corsican island and its entire continental shelf currently submerged, can also explain other things in a very intuitive way. For example, the Greeks and Romans probably thought that the submergence of the Corsican Sardinian geological block had been a punishment from the gods for the arrogant inhabitants, who “had forcefully attempted, in one fell swoop, to invade the lands on this side of the Colonne D’ Ercole (perhaps located in the current Birsa Bank, an apparently anthropized underwater mountain beneath the Sicilian Channel, data scientifically verified via Emodnet bathymetry). First I was trying to clarify the toponymy. Now we can try to clarify the onomastics: the Gods punished the Sardinian-Corsicans, called “Atlanteans” by the Egyptians, according to what was stated in the Platonic texts around 9600 BC, “crushing the Sardinian-Corsican island under his feet, and it sank” (the quote is my hypothesis). And this easily explains why the Greeks called Sardinia Ichnusa (footprint) and the Romans called it Sandalia (sandalwood print). Even the name is now very clear: they were Greeks and Romans who mocked Sardinia, which was what remained of the great Sardinian-Corsican power, which the Egyptians called “Atlantis” in the story told to Solon, who told it to Dropides, who spoke about it to Critias grandfather, who told me about it to Critias grandson, who told Socrates in the Platonic dialogues of Timaeus and Critias. If any reader wants to know the original history of the Corsican Sardinian geological block, before it sank around 9600 BC, he is obliged to read Timaeus and Critias, two texts written by the Greek Plato. All the rest of the texts published up to now have done nothing but add entropy, chaos, confusion, in the history of the Sardinian-Corsican bloc, as characters like Cayce or Madame Blavatsky, professional charlatans, used the topic of Atlantis to make money, publishing books full of lies and entertaining the curious, especially after they saw that Ignatius Donnelly’s book entitled ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD, had had an incredible media coverage worldwide. Cinema and television, then, have introduced a lot of nonsense on the topic of Atlantis, so when we talk about this topic many have in mind parts of films or cartoons or fantasy books that have nothing to do with it that Plato said. Hence: the Greek name Ichnusa, and Latin Sandalia, confirm my hypothesis that the ancients thought that the gods punished the Sardinian-Corsican island by crushing it under their feet. A geological science as we understand it today did not yet exist. Furthermore:the Wadati-Benioff tectonic fault that passes under Pompeii and Herculaneum, and which destroyed them, is probably the same one that continues up to the Sulcis in present-day Sardinia and continues until it reaches the present-day Strait of Gibraltar. Since this fault is activated in geological time, the citizens who live in Sulcis are not aware of the seismic activity. When this releases its elastic energy, frightening disasters occur, such as the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar, the destruction of cities and places such as Pompeii and Herculaneum, or the submersion of the Sardinian-Corsican island. But the submergence is probably also due to another very important cause: the geological adjustment of the Sardinian-Corsican island following the “slab roll-back” which, as revealed to us by the ancient Egyptian priest, occurred in around 9600 BC. The Slab Roll-Back, concomitant with the tectonic awakening of the fault present under the Sulcis and currently unknown to official geology which instead knows of a fault further south that runs along Africa, and perhaps also due to the succession of various post-Wurm glaciation Meltwater Pulses, they caused the partial submergence of the Sardo Corsa island. Now,out of the water, only the tops of the mountains remained, which we now believe to be separate islands, and which our civilization now knows by the names of Sardinia and Corsica. Furthermore, all the toponymy and onomastics present in Sulcis leave a question: why do all these Sulcis places recall Plato’s story? We can then take up the Platonic text again to try to understand the reason. First of all, if the Pillars of Hercules were located on Birsa Bank, and the Sardinian-Corsican island and its currently submerged continental shelf is really Atlantis, this means that in 9600 BC it was customary to call the current Mediterranean Sea with the name of Sea Atlantic (i.e. sea of the island of Atlantis) or Atlantic Ocean (ocean of the currently submerged Sardinian-Corsican island, i.e. Atlantis). I haven’t read Frau (2002) yet, so I don’t know if he has already published some of my statements, in which case I apologize in advance. Mine are just reflections resulting from the reasoning made in the last two years. Please let me know of any shortcomings or apparent plagiarisms, thanks in advance. If all this is true, then perhaps Poseidon was a man, and obviously not a deity (because, have you ever met one in person?), and this man fell in love with a teenager whose parents had died, Clito. The Platonic tale states that Poseidon surrounded the hill with water channels. Now, Sulcis itself (but look at what a coincidence! Or maybe it’s not a coincidence?) is of a volcanic nature, so right in the center of Sulcis there is a hill or mountain, if you like, not too high, and this is visible using satellite systems such as Google Maps or Google Earth, which even allows you to tilt the view by pressing the shift key on the computer keyboard. But are these places really ancient as Plato says or are they very recent places? Easy to verify: right in the center of Sulcis, you can verify that the prehistoric caves IS ZUDDAS exist, and nearby there is ACQUACADDA (Poseidon placed two sources there, one of cold water and one of hot water, and the place is called Acquacadda …but look at what an incredible coincidence! Of course I have an imagination!) and very ancient archaeological finds were found in the town of Acquacadda. Now an expert might object that the finds, for example, are only from 6000 years ago. Note: an expert should look for the stratigraphic layers of 9600 BC: only then would it be possible to obtain more detailed information. Instead, currently groups of children are brought to these places to watch. In my opinion this is dangerous but I am not a stratigraphy specialist, so I have no say in the matter. Also in Sulcis, the Su Benatzu Cave was found, which is an authentic archaeological treasure, which could contribute to research on the topic “what happened in the millennia after the sinking of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean island?” (I need to develop this topic). Furthermore, in support of the theory of the submerged Sardinian-Corsican Atlantis, there is another scientific discovery of marine archaeology: the discovery of a load of 39 orichalcum ingots by the extraordinary Sebastiano Tusa off the coast of Gela, in Sicily. Newspaper articles speculate that they came from Greece or Asia Minor, but now that we have all this information about the submerged Sardinian-Corsican island, we can assume that they came from this now submerged island, which is located very close away, which makes the hypothesis very plausible. The antiquity of the semi-submerged Sardinian Corsican geological block is known to official science, and in particular also to geology, which is aware of the so-called “rotation of the Sardinian-Corsican block” which began about 40 million years ago, after the detachment of the block from the current coast of Spain and France, and lasted about 15 million years (take the dates with a grain of salt, I wouldn’t be surprised if they turn out to be incorrect in the future). It is possible to know this, as the well-known geologist Mario Tozzi states, because a lot of research has been done in the paleomagnetic field, who showed how the only way to explain the geomagnetic orientation of the Sardinian-Corsican stone and geological structures is to bring it back to coincide with the current Hispanic-French coasts. Furthermore, the fact that the geological structure of Sardinia presents various types of Graben Horst may also have contributed to the possible submergence, so these geological accommodations may also have contributed to important and significant telluric movements for the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean people. who lived there. For example, the Campidano plain in Sardinia is a Graben Horst. The antiquity of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block is clear to geologists from all over the world as there are even “graptolites” present, to which the Sapiens program of the extraordinary geologist Mario Tozzi dedicated videos (see: “The Graptolites of Goni a Sapiens”). Now, if Atlantis is really the submerged Sardinian-Corsican block, then we must verify again what Plato said. Atlantis also dominated Libya and Tyrrhenia in the Mediterranean, and many islands scattered across the Ocean (remember that we have already shown that Ocean, in the texts of 9600 BC cited by the Egyptians, is the Sea of Corsica and Sardinia, and not the present-day Atlantic Ocean). But if it is true that it dominated, then perhaps there were also linguistic influences? But of course, and the proof already exists: many scholars have noticed the incredible similarities between Sardinian dialects and languages and the Corsican language, the Sicilian “dialect” (or should we say the language?) (Minimum dictionary. Sardinian Corsican Sicilian. Correspondences in Gallurese, by Emilio Aresu and others),mainstream as no one imagined the enormous importance of this type of work, which shows to all intents and purposes that the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean languages have spread throughout the Mediterranean. And now, thinking about it, we can begin to understand that even in the study of languages there has been an inversion: it was believed that Sardinian resembled Spanish and Portuguese because we were “dominated” by them in recent history, while probably Spanish and Portuguese languages, on the other hand, were imposed by the prehistoric Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean dominion of which, until now, we were not aware. La Nuova Sardegna dedicated an article on the subject entitled: «That thread that binds the Sardinians with the Basques» by Paolo Curreli in which an exceptional and brilliant linguist noticed this Sardinian Corsican Atlantean linguistic heritage, and made it known to the world with his extraordinary works (from the article: “Hundreds of similar words in the study of Elexpuru Arregi. Many linguistic affinities Two towns with the same names: Aritzo and Aritzu. But also Uri and Aristanus. Holly in Sardinian, galostiu, in Basque is gorostoi”). But Atlantidologists cannot get to these texts if no one shows their correlation with the theme of Atlantis. There is therefore still a lot of work to do, and this is just the beginning of a new era of studies. The peoples of the Corsican Sardinian block therefore influenced in prehistory the evolution of the current languages and dialects and minority languages of part of the Mediterranean and perhaps also of other places. Here is now explained in a very simple and crystalline way why Sardinian, Corsican, Sicilian, Basque, Spanish, Portuguese, the Veronese dialect (see for example all the names of asparagus, vegetables etc. which are identical to the Sardinian ones) and who knows which others are so similar. Now that we have this information, we can resume the extraordinary work ofProfessor Bartolomeo Porcheddu and compare ourselves with your statements, which are now all perfectly correct and all not only explainable, but even understandable and obvious to reason. What Professor Bartolomeo Porcheddu states is right and correct (in my eyes it is obvious, there is no need to even underline it, but in interviews one sometimes gets the impression that his theses are considered “fringe theories”, as if they were pseudo -science, while instead they are a demonstration of extraordinary genius and intuition). There are various sites that show how various scholars were already realizing the linguistic similarities between languages and dialects of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block and other languages and dialects scattered across the Mediterranean in particular, see also this article. Yet another article that talks about it is this. In short, by now serious scholars were realizing that there was information that we were not aware of, as if there really was an ancient Civilization that was missing from the roll call of Ancient History, as Graham Hancock states: this civilization is the one that lived in Corsican Sardinian geological block currently semi-submerged, when this was an island and emerged land: Graham Hancock was therefore right on this point. The impact of this extraordinary discovery creates a sort of shock in the scholar’s mind: in fact, now there is a sense of disorientation, of distrust. How is it possible that almost no one had ever noticed, if we exclude some brilliant scholars who were even mocked for their statements? How is it possible that Plato was not believed? Even Aristotle himself did not believe him: “He who dreamed of Atlantis also made it disappear.” In conclusion: the elderly Egyptian priest was telling Solon, in around 590 BC, that the Greeks are a young people, as the literati cyclically died due to the catastrophes that periodically occur on the planet, and therefore their opinions on the past were like of fairy tales, because they had not fixed historical events in written language. The Egyptians, on the other hand, fixed information on stone, so they had memories of facts that had become grayed by time. And he doesn’t immediately tell him about Atlantis, he talks to him about the first Athens, founded around 9600 BC, i.e. 1000 years before the city of Sais in Egypt. At that time, the Greeks accomplished the most extraordinary feat of all: they managed to free all the peoples of the Mediterranean from the invasion of one people,
Professor Sergio Frau (2002) realized that ” Sardinia is Atlantis “, while in reality it is a plateau of the Corsican Atlantean Sardinian geological block, and therefore tried to make the Island of Atlas coincide with Sardinia. The problem is that Sardinia is only a subset of Atlantis, so the entire Sardinian continental shelf was missing, which is currently submerged as the Platonic story of Timaeus and Critias says, and the mountainous area north of the island of Atlantis was missing, the emerged part of which is today called “Corsica”. Furthermore, Corsica was ceded to France, terribly complicating the research even more: in fact, human beings mentally, seeing that one part is Italian and one French, instinctively think that they are two different realities, while in reality they are the same submerged island , as world-renowned geologists have already confirmed to me that they know. But geologists call this submerged island millennia ago with the name of “Corsican Sardinian geological block”, while the Egyptian priest who told Solon could not use the terms “Sardinia” and “Corsica” which did not yet exist. Then archaeologists, using the scientific method, verified Frau’s claims, and they realized that scientifically it didn’t add up, and they are right. In reality, both Frau and the archaeologists were right: Frau was right, as Sardinia is a subset of the Corsican Atlantean island of Sardinia. The archaeologists were right, as Sardinia is too small in size to be Atlantis. Furthermore, the dating given of the nuragic was unfortunately not correct, so it was rightly pointed out by our scientists. What is perplexing, perhaps, is the fact that Atlantis is a submerged island, so: why have the submerged bathymetries never been shown during hundreds of encounters? Why weren’t bathymetry experts summoned? This will likely remain a mystery for the next few years to come.
If you want to really understand Atlantis: study the geology of the submerged Sardinian Corsican block. Studying the Sardinian dwarf elephants found in Sardinia, called Mammuthus Lamarmorae. When Plato writes that “the species of elephants was present” he is talking about this animal, not Indian elephants. To understand Atlantis it is necessary to know the toponymy of Sulcis: “Poseidon placed two springs there, one of cold water and one of hot water”. The Sardinian Corsican Atlanteans in fact called the towns of Sulcis with the following names: Acquafredda (disappeared in the Middle Ages, but a Castle of Acquafredda remained in Siliqua), Acquacadda, S’acqua callenti de Susu, S’acqua callenti de Baxiu, Piscinas (perhaps following the submergence of the Sardinian geological block), the Zinnigas source still exists, Is Sais Superiore and Is Sais Inferiore (who probably gave their name to the city of Sais in Egypt where they told Solon about Atlantis). The Atlantean DNA has already been found and studied by Professor Carlo Lugliè, who has already SCIENTIFICALLY established that this population has a different DNA from that of the Neolithic people who populated Sardinia 3000 three thousand years later. Certain! If there was a catastrophe with the sinking of the Corsican Sardinian geological block, it is obvious that they died and then a population with different DNA arrived. In Sulcis Poseidon evidently loved caves. There were the caves of IS Zuddas and Acquacadda (here comes the theme of hot and cold water and therefore of sources). But when he moved north, he probably went to the caves of Alghero, which the Romans still knew as Neptune’s Caves. But Neptune is the Latin name of Poseidon! Therefore the caves of Neptune are the place of travel of this ancient ruler when he went to the north, probably to visit his children. Until today, it was thought that Poseidon / Neptune was a myth / legend, but instead he was a very ancient ruler, later deified. This fact is called “EVEMERISM”. I suggest all readers take a look, to learn new things. If what I say is true, can I prove it in some way? If a person is intelligent he can deduce it in the following way. The Mammuthus Lamarmorae have so far been found in at least 3 locations: Funtanammari in Gonnesa, in Alghero where there is Neptune’s cave, and if I’m not mistaken in Sinis. In Alghero we just said that there are Neptune’s Caves, so Poseidon went there, and they found the Sardinian dwarf mammoth there. If you analyze the toponymy of Gonnesa, they found another Dwarf Mammoth of the elephant species in Funtanamari, which means “Fountain by the sea”. But the fountain is a source of water! Here is the theme of the island rich in water sources. Now, the Egyptian priest told Solon, around 590 BC, a lot of things, but archaeologists cannot go so far as to pretend that the priest also taught him the language and the various Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean dialects. All those I list are not coincidences: Atlantis is really the Corsican Sardinian block currently semi-submerged. Here is the theme of the island rich in water sources. Now, the Egyptian priest told Solon, around 590 BC, a lot of things, but archaeologists cannot go so far as to pretend that the priest also taught him the language and the various Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean dialects. All those I list are not coincidences: Atlantis is really the Corsican Sardinian block currently semi-submerged. Here is the theme of the island rich in water sources. Now, the Egyptian priest told Solon, around 590 BC, a lot of things, but archaeologists cannot go so far as to pretend that the priest also taught him the language and the various Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean dialects. All those I list are not coincidences: Atlantis is really the Corsican Sardinian block currently semi-submerged.
If Atlantis is really the semi-submerged Sardinian-Corsican block, then some parts of prehistory and history will have to be rewritten all over again. I leave this job to you. I’m not capable of it. For me it has already been a superhuman effort to be able to put order in the midst of all this mess. I don’t care about fame. In my opinion, Professor Ugas came close when talking about the Atlantic coast of Africa, but in my opinion, to understand it better, he could delve deeper into Marco Ciardi’s text, when he talks about Bailly (Ciardi M., Atlantis A scientific controversy from Columbus to Darwin, Carocci editore, Rome, 1st edition, November 2002, p.92-97): in practice a part of the Atlantean colony colonized the area indicated by the ProfessorUgas, while Poseidon became the ruler of the now submerged Sardinian-Corsican island. It is important to note that the currently submerged Sardinian Corsican continental shelf is of immense size! That was an integral part of the island. 11,000 years of erosion by marine currents generated the mud that surrounded the island in Plato’s story, and this mud, by settling, cleaned the waters of present-day Sardinia, making them crystal clear. Furthermore, there is a very small desert in Sulcis. This desert, most likely, is artificial.
The Timaeus is not only a text of Astronomy, but also of Geology, given that it deals with the geological sinking of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block.
Paradigm shift , as explained in Thomas Kuhn’s book, The structure of scientific revolutions, how the ideas of science change, Einaudi, Turin, 1969: I called it ” The Sardinian Corsican Atlantean paradigm”. Previously everyone believed that orbits were circular, following Eudoxus of Cnidus, Aristotle and Ptolemy in the “Ipse Dixit” style. Then they realized, after an infinite number of tests, that the orbits are elliptical. Then another paradigm shift occurred: the Bible said that the earth was at the center of the Universe, and Copernicus said that the Sun was in the focus of the elliptical orbit. Galileo confirmed, and the Inquisition showed him the instruments of torture. Bruno was burned alive for advocating scientific truth. In my opinion, today we are once again faced with something extraordinary: a new paradigm shift. The island of Atlantis is the Egyptian name for the Sardinian-Corsican geological block currently semi-submerged, whose two plateaus that emerge out of the water are today known by the names of Sardinia and Corsica. Professor Carlo Lugliè’s studies show that the original Atlantean population, around 11,000 years ago, had a different DNA from the Neolithic people who populated 3000 years after the catastrophe, and lived mainly by procuring marine resources, and for this reason, the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean settlements they were located mainly on the coasts. It is for this reason that civilization was almost completely wiped out: because the Atlanteans inhabited the paleocoasts and these were submerged “in the short space of a day and a night of terrible earthquakes and floods”. Today science calls the Atlantean paleocoasts the “Sardinian-Corsican continental shelf”. Furthermore, there have been 11,000 years of marine currents that have eroded and destroyed coastal structures. Perhaps it is impossible to still find remnants of this civilization. Furthermore, the Andreotti Government allowed the United States to put a nuclear submarine base in La Maddalena, so the Americans have had at least half a century to carry out their raids with submarines in our waters. And since the Americans are smart, they put a “military base” right in Teulada, in Sulcis. But look, what a coincidence… Fantasy archaeology? Dear Superintendencies, where are your submarines for coastal exploration located? Where are your thousands of reports on the Sardinian-Corsican seabed? Where are the 3D bathymetries of the seabed? Or maybe they were never done? And where are the letters to the Ministers, asking to obtain these things? To obtain funding by explaining its immense importance for the history of human civilization? If Sardinian Corsican Atlantis sank on a date to be ascertained, why do we waste our breath and energy searching for Atlantis in the Nuragic layers? Once we assume the existence of Atlantis with Sulcis as its capital, we have a precise idea of where to look for the structures described by Plato: they must certainly be found in Sulcis
The dimensions coincide with what Plato stated, even the distance of the capital from the sea, about 8.8 kilometers. Perhaps the problem is that the structures could even be 100 meters underground, because at first glance it seems that they have been submerged by mountains of earth (this needs to be verified, but it is understandable to the eye). Professor Salvatore Dedola is a genius: he noticed the incredible overlap between Sardinian and Babylonian, Sumerian and Akkadian names. “There was a Paleo-Neolithic linguistic coenosis.” It is all right! The linguistic coenosis was caused by the Atlantean people of the Sardinian-Corsican coast, i.e. the same inhabitants whose DNA has already been analyzed in two out of three individuals from the rock shelter of Su Carroppu. The Sardinian-Atlanteans migrated across the Mediterranean, giving rise to the Cretan civilization which worshiped the bull exactly like the Sardinian Corsican Atlanteans, would explain the highly evolved culture of the Minoans, as it had already been developed by the Sardinian Corsicans, the engraving of Poseidon’s trident found on the Palace of Knossos; and it would explain why Sardinian ingots are found in Crete, in Cyprus, and why in Cyprus there is Akrotiri and there is a second Akrotiri in Santorini, where an advanced civilization lived that even had toilets and pipes… It would explain why on Mount Carmel they then found structures from the Nuragic era. It would explain why Atlit-Yam, Pavlopetri, Herakleion/Thonis, Baia and who knows how many others that you haven’t even found yet… And it would also explain why Atlit-Yam had that name, given that perhaps Atlantis was the mother island from which they had migrated… Since laws existed in Atlantis (the orichalcum column with the laws engraved on it, on the top of which they poured bull’s blood? Does that sound familiar?), there is no be amazed that the descendants then created the Code of Hammurabi, strengthened by the legal knowledge developed in the previous millennia on the Sardinian-Atlantean geological block. Give me the benefit of the doubt for a moment longer. The Romans sought the Damnatio Memoriae for Atlantis. They subdued them, perhaps stripped the Neptune Caves of the little material that perhaps still remained, but continued to call them by their name. In short, they knew Poseidon/Neptune, for them he was still a historical figure. At this point I wouldn’t be surprised if names linked to Atlantis had been banned, and perhaps Atlas became Antas, which could clarify the toponym S’Antadi. I haven’t been able to research this and I’m absolutely not capable of doing so. and S’Antadi also appears in Sant’Antonio di Santadi (but look at what an incredible coincidence? The Americans have put a military base here too… but what a strange coincidence… and then in Perdas de Fogu there is another military base, precisely where they stole the DNA of the inhabitants… what a strange coincidence… but of course I have some imagination, huh? How about?) At the La Maddalena submarine military base, the Americans brought, unbelievable, moles to create some of the largest tunnels in the world at the time. Why? Why were the Americans interested in digging immense tunnels in and around La Maddalena? What were they looking for underground? Had they seen some type of metal via satellite (can it be done)? I understand if they bring a missile, if they bring other materials useful for military purposes, but what about moles for digging tunnels? Perhaps it could be interesting to analyze where military bases are located to extract other useful information. Nuclear submarines for the Mediterranean? Right halfway between Sardinia and Corsica? There were accidents, and the newspapers once reported that the submarine was actually in Teulada.
To learn more:
- the Atlantean name Gadiro, translated into Greek as Eumelo (reminiscent of Emilio);
- the relations between Karnak and Carnac;
- the Gadirica area and the exact position of the Columns: El Haouaria bank?
- are all the Gadiri therefore Sardinian-Corsican-Atlanteans?: starting from this hypothesis, find all the Gadiros mentioned in official ancient history (one was Cretan; one was a poet; one won at the Olympic Games competing with the colts brought to Patroclus’ funeral; find others);
- The presence of Sardinian toponyms that include the Sardinian Corsican deities Atlantis Isis and Horo (Gold): see the toponyms with Isidore -> there is the possibility that the adoration of Isidore was then Christianized into Sant’Isidoro. Note the presence of the same toponymy in Tenerife, a Sardinian Atlantean colony.
- Further study to be done, on “mitza” Sardinian meaning -> means source, pool of water, as in the Platonic myth. It has a similar meaning in the Hebrew language, which is Semitic like Sardinian. I have the impression that the Jewish people in search of the promised land were nothing more than a portion of Sardinian peoples who migrated to Egypt in search of a land that would not sink, unlike the Sardinian block which was sinking. And this sinking, known only in remote times, every perfect land which however was sinking.
- The Cretans were Sardinian-Corso-Atlantean migrations –> Another reflection for archaeologists: why have I never heard any scholar make comparisons between the Minotaur and Su Boe Erchitu and Su Boe Muliache ? Why has no one ever pointed out that the minotaur is a Sardinian mythological figure ? Look for images of these characters online and you will understand that the minotaur is probably nothing more than an ancient Sardinian belief/legend, revived in Crete . The Minoans were Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean migrations to Crete; as you know, Evans arbitrarily chose the word “Minoans.” There is also the androcephalic or bronze Bull of Nule , which only confirms all these statements. Su Boe Erchitu is a legendary creature of Sardinian popular tradition . This should not be confused with Su Boe Muliache, another Sardinian legendary creature .I’m not saying I’m actually right. I’m saying: why don’t we try to explore other avenues of thought? Why don’t we look for other types of solutions to unsolved problems? I hope that these sentences of mine are understood for what they are: it is obvious that I am not a specialist; my proposal to scholars is to be open to examining possibilities that until now had been excluded a priori. I invite you again to re-examine the toponymy of Sulcis, because all those names of towns that refer to the Platonic myth are too strange: in Carbonia there is a hamlet called “Acqua Callentis”; in Nuxis “S’acqua callenti de Basciu”, S’Acqua callenti de Susu; the disappeared medieval town of Acquafredda, which left the Acquafredda castle; the source of Zinnigas; and there are even links to Egyptian toponymy: Heliopolis (city of the sun) and in Sulcis Terr’e Soli (land of the sun, Terresoli). Sais in Egypt and Is Sais Inferiore and Is Sais Superiore in Sulcis. In short, in my opinion this toponymy should be seriously taken into consideration by a self-respecting scholar. I can also understand that perhaps no one had noticed until now, but now that I have made the information public, in my opinion it may be worth it for some scholars to start following these new unexplored paths.
- In recent days I realized that Cabras is a surname, it is the name of a town; it is the location where they found the Giants of Mont’e Prama; and I thought: “Cabras in Sardinian means goats”; this name can even date back to the Paleolithic! Immediately afterwards I thought: “I wonder if there was an ancient village called Brebeis”, which in Sardinian means “Sheep”. I thought these things about 2 days ago. Just now, examining Sulcis, I realized that the Is Brebeis pond, Le Pecore pond, exists right in Sulcis . Crazy: it seems that my theories have a confirmation in the real world, everything now seems to have a profound and even intuitive meaning. I had never heard of this Is Brebeis pond before…
If the Sardinian Corsican Atlantis theory were true and scientifically proven , there would be many immediate consequences from a scientific, historical, anthropological, cultural, linguistic, commercial and philosophical point of view. Here are some examples:
- Scientific : The discovery of such an advanced civilization on such a remote island could spur new scientific research to better understand this civilization and its impact on the ancient world. New excavation and study campaigns may be necessary to explore the submerged ruins and ancient artifacts.
- Historic : The discovery of such an advanced civilization on such a remote island could change the way we view ancient history. New research may be needed to better understand how this civilization developed and interacted with other Mediterranean cultures.
- Anthropological : The discovery of such an advanced civilization on such a remote island could provide new information on cultural exchanges between different civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean. New research may be needed to better understand how these cultures interacted with each other and how they influenced each other’s traditions and customs.
- Cultural : The legend of Atlantis has fascinated people for centuries, and the discovery of its true location could inspire new works of art and literature. New stories, poems, paintings and sculptures could be created representing this lost civilization.
- Linguistic : The discovery of such an advanced civilization on such a remote island could provide new information on the spread of languages in the ancient Mediterranean. New research may be needed to better understand how these languages spread among different Mediterranean cultures.
- Trade : The discovery of such an advanced civilization on such a remote island could suggest the existence of unknown trade routes between the different cultures of the Mediterranean. New research may be needed to better understand how these routes worked and how they influenced the spread of ideas and innovations.
- Philosophical : The legend of Atlantis was passed down by the ancient Greeks, and the discovery of its true location could provide new perspectives on ancient Greek philosophy. New research may be needed to better understand how ancient Greeks incorporated the legend of Atlantis into their philosophical reflections.
In general, if the Sardo Corsa Atlantis theory were true and scientifically proven, it would have many immediate consequences from a scientific, historical, anthropological, cultural, linguistic, commercial and philosophical point of view.
Sardinian Corso Atlantidee colonies before the submergence of the Sardinian geological block
Among the best-known Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean colonies before the submergence of the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean geological block, there are the structures found in Turkey of Gobekli Tepe, Karan Tepe and other similar structures still under analysis today. Reconstructing this information is extremely difficult, but we could try to do it, starting for example from symbolism. The concentric circle structure should now be known as a reference to the structure of Sulcis, where the ancient Sardinian-Corsican ruler Poseidon made his home together with Clito, on a hill/mound near Santadi and Sant’Anna Arresi. Gobekli Tepe and Karan Tepe present Atlantean structures called Taulas (tables), in the shape of a T, which the Atlanteans had also built on the island of Minorca. The Sardinian Corsican Atlantean Mesolithic symbolism is present in Turkey in the various Tepes excavated so far, as they include the Bull sacred to the Atlanteans, and the vulture. The symbolism of the vulture and the bull is present in many ancient cultures, and interpreting it as direct evidence of a connection between different regions requires caution. For example, the vulture is a common symbol in many ancient cultures, often associated with death or rebirth, while the bull is a symbol of strength and fertility. The Atlantean vulture, represented in Turkey, will then be represented among the people of Egypt with the sacred representation of Mut and Nekhbet. In particular, the Egyptians, to clarify that they were talking about the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlanteans, placed the symbol of Sulcis Metallurgy between Nekhbet’s claws, which we show in the image immediately below:
The Sardo Corsican Atlanteans built the structures of Gobekli Tepe and Karan Tepe as a demonstration of their technological advancement and architectural skills, and this had great cultural significance for them. Their behavior could not go unnoticed, and showed other populations new ways of living, new behaviors, new religions. There was an ongoing cultural exchange between different civilizations and populations. This also explains why the Taulas of Menorca are also present in Gobekli Tepe. To clarify all these oddities, a paradigm shift was necessary, which we will call the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean Paradigm, which manages to clarify many hitherto obscure aspects of the archaeological and anthropological past.
Consequences of accepting the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean Theory:
If in the future many of the statements made by Luigi Usai were confirmed, there would be various implications and consequences on a scientific, historical and cultural level. However, it is important to underline that to date these claims are still being discussed by the mainstream scientific community and are considered as revolutionary theories with multidisciplinary evidence that requires further study. To explore the possible implications, we can consider a hypothetical scenario in which these statements are confirmed:
- Rewriting History: If Luigi Usai’s claims are confirmed, this may require a significant rewriting of some of known history, particularly that concerning the Atlantean civilization and its influences on ancient cultures.
- New theories and lines of research: The acceptance of these theories could open new lines of research and study, involving different disciplines such as archaeology, linguistics, geology and anthropology.
- Cultural identity: The cultural implications could be considerable, especially for the regions involved in the claims, such as Sardinia and Corsica. A greater awareness of one’s origins and a deeper interest in local history and culture may emerge.
- Revision of existing theories: New discoveries may require a revision of existing theories regarding antiquity, the migration of peoples and the spread of cultures.
- Impact on education: The hypothetical confirmation of these claims could influence the way in which antiquity is taught in schools and universities, requiring the updating of textbooks and curricula.
- Dialogue between the scientific and non-scientific communities: If these claims are confirmed, there could be greater debate between the scientific community and the general public on historical, archaeological and cultural issues.
- Impact on tourism and cultural heritage: The areas affected by the claims could experience an increase in tourist interest, as confirmation of a connection with ancient Atlantis could attract visitors interested in history and culture.
- New approaches to research: The new discoveries could lead to a reconsideration of how archaeological and historical research is done, encouraging an interdisciplinary and innovative approach.
CRITICISM OF THE SARDINIAN Corsican ATLANTIS
SAFEGUARDING THE DISCOVERY AND PROTECTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
I would like to point out that I did everything to make this data public and disseminate it, but I hit a brick wallboth from the Superintendencies, who never responded to my emails or my certified e-mails, and from the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, which never responded to my emails or my certified e-mails, and from various university professors and archaeologists who I contacted privately. I was told that “The Scientific Community as such does not exist”, or that “they do not disclose the discoveries of other scholars”. In practice, if any citizen makes a potential discovery, he is not provided with any support to communicate it to the scientific world. There is the expectation that a person with no experience, who has never done it before, creates a perfect scientific paper from scratch, with all the trappings, and delivers it to I don’t know who for publication and analysis by the scientific community. In my opinion this is shameful. I would have expected to have help in the attempt first to arrange my statements in an understandable way, and then in the disclosure for the analysis and counter-verification of the truthfulness of what was stated. Same attitude on the part of the publishing houses: they would have published the book, but only after scientists had confirmed my statements.
Luigi Usai’s theory on the position of Atlantis in the semi-submerged Sardinian-Corso block has not yet been validated by scholars, but has aroused great interest among scholars from all over the world for its suggestion on the possible discovery of Atlantis. Usai has provided hundreds of verifiable and scientific evidence that seems to consistently show the existence of Atlantis in the currently semi-submerged Corsican Sardinian geological block. However, some scholars have raised objections and criticisms to Usai’s theory, arguing that there is no concrete evidence demonstrating the existence of Atlantis in the semi-submerged Sardinian-Corso block. Furthermore, some have underlined that Usai’s theory is based on subjective interpretations of historical and geological sources and that no stratigraphy has yet been carried out for its counter-verification. Other scholars have instead expressed interest in Usai’s theory and have underlined the need for further research and analysis to verify its validity. The possible implications of Usai’s theory on the location of Atlantis for the history of humanity are enormous, as it could lead to a rewriting of ancient history and the discovery of new information about ancient civilizations. However, it is important to underline that Usai’s theory has not yet been confirmed and that further research and analysis is needed to verify its validity. Other scholars have instead expressed interest in Usai’s theory and have underlined the need for further research and analysis to verify its validity. The possible implications of Usai’s theory on the location of Atlantis for the history of humanity are enormous, as it could lead to a rewriting of ancient history and the discovery of new information about ancient civilizations. However, it is important to underline that Usai’s theory has not yet been confirmed and that further research and analysis is needed to verify its validity. Other scholars have instead expressed interest in Usai’s theory and have underlined the need for further research and analysis to verify its validity. The possible implications of Usai’s theory on the location of Atlantis for the history of humanity are enormous, as it could lead to a rewriting of ancient history and the discovery of new information about ancient civilizations. However, it is important to underline that Usai’s theory has not yet been confirmed and that further research and analysis is needed to verify its validity. as they could lead to a rewriting of ancient history and the discovery of new information about ancient civilizations. However, it is important to underline that Usai’s theory has not yet been confirmed and that further research and analysis is needed to verify its validity. as they could lead to a rewriting of ancient history and the discovery of new information about ancient civilizations. However, it is important to underline that Usai’s theory has not yet been confirmed and that further research and analysis is needed to verify its validity.
Oceanine, water nymphs, mountain nymphs, are the names with which Sardo-Corsican women were called.
New working hypothesis: the ancient Greeks called Sardinian women “water nymphs”, “mountain nymphs” . Now you can go and study all the references you find online to the “water nymphs”, and little by little you will begin to understand that they are the women who lived in present-day Sardinia.
Why Oceanine? Because the sea around the Sardinian-Corsican block was called the Atlantic Ocean in the Paleolithic, so from the Paleolithic onwards, if you talked about a woman who lived in that territory, for example present-day Sardinia and Corsica, you could say that she was an Oceanina, that is, it came from the Atlantic Ocean, as in the image:
Guardians of the water sources -> the sacred wells of the Nuragic era, you rejoice in the caves, you rejoice in the caves -> the caves: for example Grotte Is Zuddas, Grotta d’Acquafredda; Su Carroppu di Sirri Cave in Carbonia, Neptune’s Cave in Alghero etc; you rejoice in the caves -> the Domus De Janas , rural girls -> well, at least they didn’t say “you behave like shepherds”, it’s already a good start, girls from the springs and who live in the woods -> Sardinia was all a forest, then transformed into the Granary of Rome; odorous virgins –> well, at least they didn’t say “pottaisi unu fragu purexiu”, it’s a good start; dressed in white -> I missed this one: I didn’t know that the Sardinians wore white scent the breezes, protect the goats and shepherds -> here is a clear reference to the agricultural world in general, but it is even in tune with contemporary Sardinia; dear to the forests, with splendid fruits -> now rereading all the references to the Sea Nymphs, it is very clear to understand that we are talking about the Sardinian Women. When in mythology it is written: “X” married a sea nymph, it simply means that he married a Sardinian woman, that’s all. Search as many texts as you like to carry out counter-checks, and you will soon begin to understand that little by little we continue to progress in the understanding of antiquity. If we want to make truly notable progress in understanding meaning, we must also strive to do something that no one has ever done before: DARE. Trying to speculate, theorizing things that archaeologists cannot afford to affirm because it would ruin their reputation, to try to SEE, UNDERSTAND what until now no one has been able to see. Now we can try to re-study the Naiads and the Nereids, starting from these reflections, to see if it is possible to extract new significant information, new points of view useful for learning. I have not found any specific information on other websites to suggest that the water nymphs were simply Sardinian women, at the moment it seems to be just my belief. However, the female figure in Sardinian history and culture is absolutely central and Sardinian traditions with their legends, religious cults, political and popular vicissitudes, are closely linked to matriarchal roots
The Superintendencies and at least one Ministry of the Italian Government have never responded to my certified email (certified e-mail with equivalent value to registered mail with return receipt) where I reported the discovery within 24 hours as per current legislation on the procurement of Archaeological or Cultural Heritage. Maybe they thought it was a joke .
1) I publicly warn them ;
2) based on current legislation, I have the legal and moral duty to protect and safeguard the discoveries made : I made the news public to prevent the discovery and finds from being ruined in recent years (damaged, sabotaged, stolen, illegally exported, destroyed by incompetent people such as inexperienced construction personnel carrying out maneuvers on the territory etc.) due to poor State management of the findings. In fact, by law I would have the obligation to remain silent, in order to be entitled to the economic percentage on the discovery. But in this case, my conscience requires me to make the news public because in my opinion it isthe State Managers who should protect the discovery and findings (cultural assets, treasures, works of art, finds, ports, villages, boats etc.), are currently endangering it with their apparent indifference.
Some Data/Information used in this website was made available by the EMODnet Human Activities project and Emodnet, www.emodnet-humanactivities.eu, funded by the European Commission Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries.
Based on current legislation, considering the animus derelinquendi towards the corpus derelictionis, I declare the discovery and/or the objects present in it Res Nullius and Res Derelicta, unless different regulatory provisions which will be evaluated from time to time with the relevant authorities.
What I want to try to show in this experimental section is the spread of the megalithic movement throughout Europe and perhaps beyond Europe, starting from the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean geological block, currently semi-submerged under what was called the “Atlantic Ocean”, which today is called the Sea of Sardinia, the Sea of Corsica, the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and which in the past also had the names of Mar Tetide, while the Romans called it Mare Nostrum to indicate their ownership and possession, while the Egyptians called it they called by many other names: the Great Green, the Primordial Ocean, the Great Nun.
The distribution of megalithic monuments across Europe and the Mediterranean islands represents one of the most fascinating puzzles of prehistoric archaeology. While Sardinia is particularly famous for its Nuragic structures, other regions, such as Cornwall in England, Spain and France, have their own distinctive megalithic monuments such as the Lanyon Quoit, Stonehenge and many others.
Lanyon Quoit : This structure in Cornwall is an example of a dolmen, a megalithic tomb that often consists of several vertical stones supporting a large horizontal stone. Such dolmens can be found in many parts of Europe, including Britain, France, Scandinavia, and even in parts of Asia, such as Korea.
Nuragic monuments : In Sardinia, Nuragic structures are mainly stone towers and fortified complexes, unique in their kind and not directly comparable to dolmens such as Lanyon Quoit. However, Sardinia also has dolmens, menhirs and domus de janas, which are rock-cut tombs, similar in some respects to megalithic tombs found elsewhere in Europe.
Although both Cornwall and Sardinia have megalithic constructions dating back to the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, the nature, function and culture behind these constructions can vary greatly. The geographical distance between the two regions makes direct contact unlikely, but does not exclude the possibility of indirect cultural exchanges or mutual influences through intermediaries.
It must be said that during the Bronze Age, travel across the Mediterranean and along the Atlantic coasts was possible. The Bell Beaker culture, for example, showed a surprisingly wide distribution across Europe in a similar period, suggesting that there were trade routes and cultural exchanges between different regions.
In summary, while there is no concrete evidence of a direct link between Lanyon Quoit in Cornwall and the megalithic structures of Sardinia, the presence of megalithic monuments in both regions highlights a widespread phenomenon and a common tendency in European prehistory to build these impressive structures in stone. The true nature and extent of any possible interaction or mutual influence between the two cultures remains an area of speculation and study for archaeologists.
The theory that proposes a possible center of origin of the megalithic movement in the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean geological block is fascinating and opens the door to numerous speculations. This hypothesis, based on the existence of a block of land between Sardinia, Corsica and the Sardinian Corsican continental shelf, suggests that the advanced Sardinian Corsican civilization may have begun the megalithic tradition and that, with the progressive rise of sea level , these people may have moved and spread their culture to Europe.
Here are four European megalithic monuments. We’ll briefly look at each and see how they might fit this hypothesis; Let’s remember that I am proposing this hypothesis, which in my opinion is extremely likely and even the most probable from my point of view:
- Stonehenge (England) : One of the most famous megalithic monuments in the world, built in several stages. The large sarsen stones and blue stones were transported from afar, suggesting an organized society with a strong religious or astronomical motivation, and this civilization is the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean one. If the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean hypothesis were correct, there may have been migrations or cultural influences that led to the construction of Stonehenge.
- Carnac (France) : This site in Brittany is famous for its rows of menhirs that stretch for kilometers. It could be interpreted as a spread of megalithic culture along the Atlantic coasts following prehistoric Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean migrations.
- Newgrange (Ireland) : A mound with a passage in it, known for its solstitial alignment. This suggests astronomical knowledge, which may have been brought by Corsican Sardinian migrants or influenced by one of the many megalithic civilizations originating from the Corsican Sardinian geological block. Let us remember that, if the interpretation given by Luigi Usai on the fourth book of Herodotus’ Histories is correct, then Sardinia was a hive of tribes and populations with different habits and customs; nomadic peoples and sedentary peoples; peoples who lived as troglodytes, that is, inhabitants of caves and ravines, and peoples who built houses with blocks of salt because in some areas of Sardinian Libya it did not rain in some areas,
- Mnajdra and Ħaġar Qim (Malta) : These megalithic temples are among the oldest in the world and show a sophisticated understanding of stone architecture. Their proximity to Sardinia and Corsica could suggest a connection or diffusion of culture from the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block.
While the hypothesis is fascinating, there are many challenges. First, the precise dating of these sites and their development in relation to each other. Second, cultural influences can often be difficult to trace and may come from multiple sources. However, the presence of similar stone structures in different parts of Europe could suggest some sort of cultural connection or diffusion, and the idea of a submerged geological block that played a role in European prehistory is certainly worthy of further research.
Continuing with the hypothesis of a possible origin of the megalithic movement linked to the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean geological block, we examine six other famous megalithic structures and see how they could connect to this theory:
- Dolmen of Menga (Spain) : Located in Antequera, it is one of the largest dolmens in Europe. Its location in Andalusia, near the Mediterranean coast, could suggest a migration or cultural exchange route across the Mediterranean from a hypothetical center in the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block.
- Gavrinis (France) : It is a mound located on an island in the Gulf of Morbihan, in Brittany. Inside, the stones are adorned with intricate carvings reminiscent of similar motifs found in different parts of megalithic Europe. This may reflect a common symbolic language or shared cultural influences.
- Almendres Cromlech (Portugal) : This stone circle, located near Évora, is often referred to as the “Portuguese Stonehenge”. Its location on the Iberian Peninsula, like the Dolmen of Menga, could suggest a migration or exchange route across the Mediterranean.
- Maeshowe (Scotland) : This mound, located in Orkney, has an entrance aligned with the winter solstice. Its sophisticated construction and location in a region that has a rich history of maritime contact could suggest trade or influence from other megalithic cultures.
- Kercado Mound (France) : Another monument located in Brittany, known for its menhir decorated inside. Its proximity to the Carnac menhirs might suggest a region particularly influenced by the megalithic tradition.
- Avebury (England) : This is another huge megalithic ceremonial complex, including stone circles, a huge cairn (Silbury Hill) and a long avenue of stones. Given its vastness and complexity, it is a further example of a well-organised society with strong megalithic traditions, which may have had its origins or influences from an early megalithic center such as the one proposed.
If we consider the hypothesis of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block, it is intriguing to note how many of these structures are located near the coasts, especially the Atlantic and Mediterranean ones. This could suggest routes of migration or cultural exchange that moved along these coasts. Furthermore, all the legends linked to Atlantis and Poseidon, god of the sea, to the Atlanteans as people of the water, a term perhaps later changed over the millennia to Sea Peoples, are congruent with these discourses: the Atlantean Corsican Sardinian sea peoples spread in throughout the Mediterranean and beyond, in an attempt to conquer other peoples, as stated in Timaeus and Critias by Sonchis of Sais, and they brought their ideas, their navigation, their prehistoric architecture linked to astronomy, spreading culture throughout the Mediterranean and beyond, probably as far as the coasts of what is now the Atlantic Ocean, as far as Carnac in France and Stonehenge in England. However, once again, it is important to note that this is speculation and that further research is needed to confirm any direct link.
To further confirm my hypothesis on the Sardinian Corsican Atlantean origin of the prehistoric megalithic movement, the analysis of the Cromlech.
A cromlech is a megalithic construction made of large blocks of stone. The word derives from the Welsh “crom”, meaning “curved” and “lech”, meaning “flat stone” 1 . The term refers to two different megalithic forms: the first is a table tomb (often called “dolmen”), while the second is a set of menhirs aligned in a circle, sometimes joined with the trilithic system to form a sanctuary, perhaps with the function of astronomical observatory 1 .
Cromlechs were built during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages and are found in many parts of Europe, such as Britain, France and Scandinavia, as well as in some parts of Asia, such as Korea. The most famous and enigmatic is the cromlech of Stonehenge, whose construction seems to have taken place between 2800 BC and 1100 BC in four different phases, and which has orientations attributable to astronomical study 1 .
In Italy, cromlechs are absent in the peninsula but are found in Sardinia, where megalithic enclosures have been noted on the plateaus of Bonorva, Abbasanta and Bitti. However, their dimensions are much smaller than those of the enclosures of France and their use may have been that of cattle pens or small defense redoubts 2. I personally don’t believe that to control livestock they made superhuman efforts, which could last years, to make a very simple fence that they could create in a few days of work with wood: it is a simply ridiculous hypothesis that they created immense and very tiring stone fences for such a simple task: it would be as if to screw a light bulb into the house, we held the light bulb still and rotated the entire house. The presence of cromlechs in Sardinia is further confirmation of my hypotheses, and the cromlechs present in Sardinia are archaeological, historical and scientific evidence, they are not fantasies. We therefore have objective data that stratify to confirm my initial hypotheses. Over 7000 nuraghi in Sardinia confirm an incredibly massive presence of prehistoric artefacts,
The observation of the cromlechs could support the hypothesis of a Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean origin of the megalithic movement. That’s how:
- Geographic Location : Cromlechs are often located in elevated positions, which offer a panoramic view of the sky and horizon. This could indicate an ancient connection with the observation of the stars, which is part of the astronomical knowledge associated with the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block.
- Construction : The construction technique of cromlechs, which uses huge blocks of stone without the use of mortar, could be compared to that of nuragic structures in Sardinia or menhirs in other parts of Europe. This similarity could suggest a common origin or shared cultural influences.
- Symbolism : Cromlechs, especially circular ones, are often associated with ceremonies related to the cycle of life, death and rebirth. These themes are also common in Nuragic culture and other megalithic traditions, suggesting a sort of common symbolic or religious language. The presence of similar symbols and carvings on megalithic structures in different parts of Europe could suggest a common symbolic language or shared cultural influences.
- Migration routes : If we consider cromlechs as indicators of migration routes or cultural exchange, it can be noted that many of these structures are located near the coasts, particularly the Atlantic and Mediterranean ones. This could strengthen the idea of an expansion of the megalithic movement from a center in the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block.
- Legends and Myths : Many cromlechs are surrounded by legends and myths that speak of giants, gods, and ancient peoples. While these tales may vary from one region to another, the presence of similar stories could indicate a common origin or shared cultural influences.
Indeed, the presence of similar symbols and carvings on megalithic structures in different parts of Europe could suggest a common symbolic language or shared cultural influences. However, interpreting symbols without the presence of a similar living culture can be problematic and ambiguous. Some scholars have suggested that elements derived from megalithic carving traditions may have been incorporated into the funerary culture of other regions, as in the case of the Oromo in the Arssi region.
Megalithic structures, such as dolmens and menhirs, are found throughout the world and are considered important cultural elements and sacred places. Some megaliths were used for astronomical observations, while others were built for funerary purposes. These monuments create a mysterious aura and often evoke a sense of communion with something supernatural.
Megalithic constructions in Western Europe, such as passage tombs and stone arrays, have been dated to between the fifth and second millennia BC and are considered indigenous, not resulting from Near Eastern influences. However, the spread of ideas may have occurred along the Atlantic coasts and from inland.
Overall, megalithic structures represent the most tangible remains of Neolithic sacred landscapes in Europe. The word “megalite” comes from Greek and means “large stone”. In conclusion, although the presence of similar symbols and carvings on megalithic structures in different parts of Europe may suggest a common symbolic language or shared cultural influences, the precise interpretation of these symbols requires a deeper understanding of the cultures that created them.
Legends and giants of Sardinia: Sardinia, with its rich history and ancient traditions, is a land shrouded in a veil of mystery and legend. One of the recurring themes in Sardinian popular stories is the presence of giants. This is no coincidence, as the island is home to several structures and archaeological finds that evoke the image of these imposing beings.
The Nuragic Tombs of the Giants are megalithic constructions, long and rectangular, which served as places of collective burial. Their monumental structure and grandeur have given rise to legends that they were the burial places of ancient giants who once inhabited the island. Some stories tell of these giants as guardians of the lands, others as heroes or local deities.
The Giants of Mont’E Prama, however, are large stone statues dating back to the Nuragic age. These statues represent warriors, archers and boxers, and are the oldest in the round statues in the Mediterranean. Their discovery has rekindled interest in local legends, offering a tangible representation of the mythical Sardinian giants.
Finally, many ancient prehistoric structures in Sardinia are known as “Sa domu e s’Orcu”, which translated means “The House of the Ogre”. The ogre, often represented as a giant in popular traditions, is a feared and respected being. Structures with this name are often tombs or other megalithic constructions, and their association with orcs may derive both from their grandeur and from beliefs that these places were inhabited or protected by supernatural beings.
These legends, stories and archaeological finds are evidence of a deep and intricate cultural heritage. The fact that similar stories of giants can be found in different cultures around the world, as in the cromlechs mentioned earlier, suggests that perhaps there is a common root or shared cultural influences between distant peoples. In Sardinia, these stories are a bridge between the past and the present, reminding us of the island’s mysterious and fascinating roots.
Although the hypothesis of a Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean origin of the megalithic movement is fascinating and presents some interesting clues, it is essential to address the question with a scientific and critical approach. Archaeologists and historians must base their conclusions on hard evidence, which can include archaeological finds, DNA analysis, linguistic studies, and more. However, the presence of similar megalithic structures in different parts of Europe and the world certainly suggests some sort of cultural connection or diffusion during prehistory, and the idea of the Sardinian-Corsican-Atlantean block offers an intriguing perspective on this network of connections .
Cairns are man-made piles of stones found in many parts of Europe and the world. These prehistoric structures were erected for a variety of purposes, including burial, commemoration, and navigation. Across Europe, prehistoric Cairns share many common characteristics, such as their shape and method of construction. However, there are also many regional differences that reflect the different cultures and traditions of the people who built them.
Prehistoric Cairns were built using local stones, often large, which were carefully selected and placed to create a solid and stable structure. In many cases, Cairns were circular or dome-shaped, with an internal chamber that could be used for burial or other ritual purposes. In some regions, Cairns were also used as navigational landmarks, marking important routes or places.
Burial practices associated with prehistoric Cairns varied by region and culture. In some areas, the deceased were buried within the Cairns in a curled up or sitting position, while in other areas they were cremated and their ashes placed within the structure. Often, the deceased were buried with personal items or votive offerings, such as weapons, jewelry, or food.
Today, prehistoric Cairns are considered important archaeological sites that provide valuable information on the lives and practices of prehistoric people. Many Cairns have been excavated and studied by archaeologists, revealing details about their construction, funerary practices and rituals associated with these structures. Furthermore, prehistoric Cairns are also important tourist sites attracting visitors interested in prehistoric history and culture.
In summary, Prehistoric Cairns are fascinating prehistoric structures that offer us a unique glimpse into the lives of prehistoric people. Their presence in many parts of Europe testifies to the richness and diversity of the continent’s prehistoric cultures.
Megalithism in Italy:
Megalithism is a phenomenon that has affected many parts of the world, including Italy. A megalith is a large stone or group of stones used to build a structure or monument without the use of binders such as lime or cement. The term megalith comes from the union of two ancient Greek words: μέγας, transliterated mégas, meaning “large” and λίθος, líthos, meaning “stone” 1 .
In Italy, megalithic monuments are found abundantly in Sardinia. The oldest megaliths on the island are the funerary circles of Gallura, of which it is right to remember the necropolis of Li Muri in Arzachena, similar to those of nearby Corsica and the Provençal and Pyrenean areas. There are also numerous menhirs, 100 in the small municipality of Laconi alone; more than 200 menhirs in the municipality of Sorgono; more than 100 dolmens located mainly in the north of the island 1 .
Megalithism in Sardinia began during the Neolithic and continued until the Nuragic era. The Nuragic Tombs of the Giants are long, rectangular megalithic constructions that served as places of collective burial. Their monumental structure and grandeur have given rise to legends that they were the burial places of ancient giants who once inhabited the island 1 .
Overall, megalithic structures represent the most tangible remains of Neolithic sacred landscapes in Europe. These monuments create a mysterious aura and often evoke a sense of communion with something supernatural.
Megalithism in Spain:
A megalith is a large stone or group of stones used to build a structure or monument without the use of binders such as lime or cement. In Spain, a huge megalithic complex was discovered in the province of Huelva, with hundreds of dolmens and menhirs 1 .
The complex is one of the largest megalithic concentrations in all of Europe and its construction began at the end of the 6th millennium BC and lasted almost 3,000 years, from the Middle Neolithic to the Ancient Bronze Age 1 . The menhirs (large stones planted vertically in the ground) are the most numerous elements: 526 were found erect or fallen to the ground, some in the shape of a rectangle, others in the shape of an egg or lentil; the tallest (3.5 meters high by one meter wide) had a great symbolic value 1 .
The complex also hosts many dolmens (structures made up of two or more stones stuck in the ground that support a horizontal table), mounds and cists (stone “boxes” where the bodies of the deceased were preserved), probably used as tombs but perhaps also associated with evocative practices and commemoration rites 1 .
Megalithism in the Balearics:
In the Balearic Islands , megalithism is represented by the talayot and the taulas .
Talayot are stone towers built during the Bronze Age in the Balearic Islands . These structures probably had a defensive function and control of the territory, but they may also have been used as places of worship or meeting. The taulas, on the other hand, are megalithic structures composed of two large stones arranged in a T, with a horizontal stone resting on a vertical one. It is believed that these structures had a religious or ceremonial function.
Megalithism in Germany: Harhoog’s Tomb and Beyond
Megalithism represents one of the most fascinating phases of European prehistory. These stone monuments, erected by ancient people for various purposes, are scattered throughout Europe, and Germany also boasts a rich heritage of these enigmatic constructions.
The Tomb of Harhoog: This structure, located in Keitum on the island of Sylt, in Schleswig-Holstein, is one of the most emblematic examples of German megalithism. It is an extended dolmen, a sort of burial chamber made with large stone slabs. The fact that it dates back to 3000 BC places it in a phase of notable cultural and technological development of the local populations. Despite its ancient origins, Harhoog’s tomb has not remained unchanged over the millennia. In 1954, due to urbanization and conservation reasons, the dolmen was moved from its original location. This move, although a necessity, underlines the importance of preserving these monuments, witnesses of a distant past still shrouded in mystery.
Other Megaliths in Germany: Harhoog’s tomb is not the only example of megalithism in Germany. The Schleswig-Holstein area, as well as other regions of the country, is home to several other similar facilities. Many of these constructions were erected during the Neolithic period and are often associated with funerary rituals, although their exact meaning and purpose remain a matter of debate among archaeologists. Over the years, many of these structures have suffered damage or been partially destroyed, making the task of conserving and enhancing what remains even more crucial.
Importance of Megalithism: Megalithism in Germany, as well as in other parts of Europe, offers an important window into the beliefs, practices, and technical capabilities of prehistoric populations. These monuments represent not only impressive architectural achievements, but also places of worship, memory and community. By studying them, we can try to better understand the ancient cultures that built them and, in a certain sense, connect with our deepest roots.
In conclusion, while Harhoog’s tomb represents one of the best-known and most distinctive examples of German megalithism, it is only the tip of the iceberg of a much larger cultural heritage. The conservation and study of these monuments are essential to preserve the memory of an era which, despite being distant in time, has left indelible traces in the landscape and culture of contemporary Europe.
Version 4 Partial list of Luigi Usai’s scientific sources for his potential discoveries
List of numbered sources for the creation of this website:
- Submarine Geomorphology of the Southwestern Sardinian Continental Shelf (Mediterranean Sea): Insights into the Last Glacial Maximum Sea-Level Changes and Related Environments
- Preservation of Modern and MIS 5.5 Erosional Landforms and Biological Structures as Sea Level Markers: A Matter of Luck?
- Relative sea level change in Olbia Gulf (Sardinia, Italy), a historically important Mediterranean harbour
- Sea-level change during the Holocene in Sardinia and in the northeastern Adriatic (central Mediterranean Sea) from archaeological and geomorphological data
- Mario Sanges, The first inhabitants of Sardinia (PDF), on Darwin Quaderni, January 2012, Darwin, 2012, pp. 32-39.
- Giulio Badini, Sardinia, first men arrived 250 thousand years ago, on Corriere della Sera Historical Archive, archiviostorico.corriere.i, 2002.
- www.nurighe.it – THE TAG, on nurighe.it.
- Julien Vandevenne, The finger on homo sardaignus?, su Archives du Quinzième jour du mois, monthly of the University of Liège., www2.ulg.ac.be, 2002.
- Barbara Wilkens, The phalanx of the Nurighe cave near Cheremule: revision and new information [broken link], on Sardinia, Corsica et Baleares antiqvae: An International Journal of Archaeology, www.academia.edu, 2011.
- Paolo Melis, Prehistoric and protohistoric research in Sardinia: new developments, in Architectures of prehistoric Sardinia: new hypotheses and research, Proceedings of the Nuoro conference of 15 October 2004, 2007, pp. 30-43
- Sandra Guglielmi, Amsicora, the oldest inhabitant of Sardinia, on ArcheoIdea, Archeomilise.it, 2011.
- Unione Sarda, Amsicora: a 9 thousand year old old man. Buried in Arbus, he is the father of the Sardinians, on Unionesarda.it, Unionesarda.i, 2011.
- Adn Kronos, Archaeology, Amsicora found: oldest human skeleton in Sardinia, on www1.adnkronos.com, Adnkronos.com, 2011.
- Sandra Guglielmi, “Amsicora”, the oldest inhabitant of Sardinia, on archeomolise.it, 2011.
- Sondaar Paul; Elburg Rengert; Hofmeijer Gerard; Spaan Andries; Visser Hannie; Sanges Mario; Martini Fabio. (1993). The population of Sardinia in the late Pleistocene: new acquisition of a human fossil remains from the Corbeddu cave. Journal of Prehistoric Science, 45: 243-251.
- Timaeus and Critias
- geological data
- University of Cagliari, Man in Sulcis already 9 thousand years before Christ, The confirmation comes from the new excavation campaign led in Su Carroppu by prof. Carlo Lugliè, teacher of Prehistory and Protohistory, 04 October 2017.
- L’UNION SARDINIA, 3 October 2017, Culture (Page 39 – CA Edition), «Man in Su Carroppu already in the Mesolithic period» ARCHEOLOGY. The discovery of the scholar Carlo Lugli is now confirmed by DNA tests.
- SARDINIAPOST.IT, In the heart of Sulcis the DNA of the Sardinians: they were genetically different from us, 1 March 2017.
- THE NEW SARDINIA of Wednesday 1 March 2017, Front page, THE DNA OF THE SKELETONS OF SU CARROPPU Those first Sardinians who were not very Nuragic. They arrived 11 thousand years ago: but they were not the ones who populated the island.
- LA NUOVA SARDINIA of Wednesday 1 March 2017, Culture – page 35, THE DNA OF THE SARDINIANS In the cave of Su Carroppu the secrets of the prehistoric Sardinians The genetic makeup of the very first inhabitants of Sardinia has been identified Genes very different from the Nuragic ones, in turn similar to those current.
- L’UNIONE SARDINIA of Wednesday 1 March 2017, Culture (Page 47 – CA Edition), Research The first Sardinians? Different from us A study on DNA reveals it. Mesolithic islanders with genetic characteristics different from the Neolithic.
- ANSA, Research: migrants from 8 thousand years ago in Sulcis Ancient DNA defined, genetic discontinuity between Mesolithic-Neolithic.
- L’UNIONESARDA.IT, A study by the University of Cagliari reveals that the first Sardinians were genetically different from us Today at 12.24pm by Manuela Arca.
- LANUOVASARDEGNA.IT, Eight thousand years the ancestors of the Sardinians were migrants: it is written in their DNA. In the journal Scientific Report the results of the study on the genetic heritage in the remains of two individuals found in the prehistoric shelter of Su Carroppu di Sirri in Carbonia.
- CASTEDDUONLINE.IT, Sardinia, the oldest sample of mitochondrial DNA defined The study demonstrates a genetic discontinuity between Mesolithic and Neolithic populations Author: Casteddu Online editorial team on 02/28/2017 11:27.
- SARDINIAPOST.IT, Sardinian DNA, the study: “The first inhabitants were genetically different from us” 28 February 2017.
- SARDEGNAOGGI.IT, New discoveries from studies on the DNA of Sardinians. Our ancestors were migrants The oldest mitochondrial DNA sample from Sardinia defined.
- New data on the neolithization of the coastal strip of south-western Sardinia | Layers. Archeology Territory Contexts (unica.it).
- Complete mitochondrial sequences from Mesolithic Sardinia.
- Sci Rep. 2019; 9: 13581.
- Genome-wide analysis of Corsican population reveals a close affinity with Northern and Central Italy, Erika Tamm, Julie Di Cristofaro, Stéphane Mazières, Erwan Pennarun, Alena Kushniarevich, Alessandro Raveane, Ornella Semino, Jacques Chiaroni, Luisa Pereira, Mait Metspalu, and Francesco Montinaro.
- bathymetric data
- Some translations available online of the texts of the Temple of Edfu in Egypt
- the videos available online, in particular on Youtube, relating to the theories of Professor Sergio Frau and the geologist Mario Tozzi
- the text by Professor Marco Ciardi, Atlantis A scientific controversy from Columbus to Darwin, Carocci editore, Rome, 1st edition, November 2002
- among the sources provided by linguistics and glottology, some videos, in particular present on YouTube, on the works of Professor Salvatore Dedola relating to the Sardinian language and toponymy
- newspaper articles and web pages that deal with the connections between Sardinian, Corsican, Sicilian, Basque, Albanian and Romanian languages and dialects
- the works explained in various YouTube videos by Professor Bartolomeo Porcheddu
- the ideas explained on some web pages on the linguistic affinities between the Sardinian languages and that of the Basque population
- another source I used is the analysis of toponymy
- the archaeogenetic research carried out by scholars from various universities, including the University of Cagliari
- The seismic anomaly caused by the slab roll-back which would have caused the sinking of the Sardinian-Corsican geological block
- Bathymetric anomalies revealing possible underwater constructions in the Mediterranean
- The war between Atlantis and Athens ended in 9600 BC described by Plato and possible connections with some underwater bathymetric anomalies in the Mediterranean
- Confirming the possible Corsican Sardinian migrations, the fact that the prehistoric man found and known as the Similaun Mummy (in German Mumie vom Similaun), also Similaun man, Hauslabjoch man and familiarly Ötzi, is perhaps of remote Sardinian origin .
- “THE GOLDEN FLEECE? It was the BYSUS!” Shardana the Sea Peoples (Leonardo Melis). Accessed August 3, 2023. http://shardanaleo.blogspot.com/2013/09/il-vello-doro-era-il-bisso.html .
- Giorgio Saba, Excuse me, where is Hades? , Amico Libro, 2016
- The Argonautica, Apollonius Rodius
- Herodotus, Histories
- Genomic Analysis of the Corsican Population: Scientific study on the genetic composition of the Corsicans, useful for tracing the history of migrations and interactions of populations.
- Bathymetric Data: Study of underwater topography to identify possible submerged structures in the Sicilian Channel and other seamounts, in relation to the search for Atlantis.
- Edfu Temple Texts: Extensive ancient religious texts from the Edfu Temple in Egypt, whose relationship to the main theme is still unclear.
- Professor Sergio Frau and Geologist Mario Tozzi: References to the theories of these two experts, presumably in relation to Atlantis.
- Atlantean Chronology and Ecclesiastical Contradictions: Discussion of the discrepancy between the biblical timeline and proposed dates for the existence of Atlantis.
- Linguistic and Glottochronological Evidence: Analysis of possible linguistic correlations between Sardinian and other languages such as Basque, Albanian, Sicilian, Corsican and Romanian, suggesting possible ancient migrations to or from Sardinia.
- Imagining the Past: Emphasis on the imaginative reconstruction of the past, with reference to a possible submerged rectangular structure near Sicily-Malta.
- Toponymic Analysis: Study of geographical names to find further evidence of the author’s theories, in particular correlations between geographical names in the Sulcis region of Sardinia and Plato’s description of Atlantis.
- Similarities between Sardinian and Egyptian toponymy: Observations on the similarities between Sardinian and Egyptian place names, suggesting possible interactions or ancient migrations between the two cultures.
- Mazzei, A. (2023, August 17). Elba, Sardinian tombs from 3700 BC. Elba Report. Retrieved from https://www.elbareport.it/arte-cultura/item/62721-elba,-tombe-sarde-del-3700-avanti-cristo
- Malnati A. (2023). Buried with sword and mirror: she was an Amazon. National newspaper. Retrieved from https://www.quotidiano.net/magazine/sepolta-con-spada-e-specchio-era-unamazzone-fded91d1
- Davies C. (2023). Isles of Scilly remains are iron age female warrior, scientists say | Archaeology | The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/science/2023/jul/27/isles-of-scilly-remains-iron-age-female-warrior-grave-bryher-sword-mirror
- BBC News. (2023, July 27). Isles of Scilly warrior grave: Remains are of a woman, study finds. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-cornwall-66314179
- The very interesting contribution by Geopop which shows the Sardo Corso Atlantidea island when it was an emerged land during the Paleolithic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JM-n3IqZRCo
- Linguistic and Glottochronological Evidence: The text discusses potential linguistic ties between Sardinian and other languages, such as Basque, Albanian, Sicilian, Corsican, and Romanian. The author suggests these similarities might be explained by ancient migrations from Sardinia.
- Toponymic Analysis: The author uses the study of place names (toponymy) to find additional evidence for their theories. They’ve identified a correlation between geographical names in the Sulcis region of Sardinia and the description of Atlantis by Plato, particularly the concept of hot and cold water sources.
- Similarities between Sardinian and Egyptian Toponymy: Finally, the author mentions similarities between Sardinian and Egyptian place names. While they don’t provide specifics, this claim suggests that the author sees a connection between these two cultures, presumably due to ancient interactions or migrations.